(BY: David G. Archer)


  1. Allatoona Dam – Congress authorized in 1941; construction delayed by WW2; construction started in 1946; and completed in 1950.
  1. Etowah Village – site of Cooper’s Iron Works and sizable town; Iron Works purchased by Confederate Government around 1863; Town and Iron Works destroyed by Sherman’s Union troops on 4/21 or 22, 1865. Town site mostely under Allatoona Lake since 1950.
  1. Hurricane Creek runs through Hurricane Hollow – site of extensive mining pre-civil war; post civil war site of Bartow Lumber Company and workers lived in 20 houses – closed operation in early 1900’s.
  1. Railroad Bridge Rock piers in river – Built in late 1830’s/early 1840’s; used Cherokee Indian labor prior to removal in 1838; destroyed (burned) by retreating Confederates in 1864. Sherman’s Union engineers rebuilt in 6 days; In 1862 Andrew’s Union raiders crossed in stolen locomotive “General”; usage ceased in 1946 pursuant to Railroad rerouting associated with construction of Lake Allatoona.
  1. Above Railroad Bridge was a Union Fort on hill on north (right) side of river; Union troops protecting Bridge during Civil War. Fort was earthen with cannon ports.
  1. Etowah Station was located on north side of river prior to and during Civil War; Mark Cooper’s 2 mile spur track joined the W&A Railroad there; During Great Locomotive Chase, Conductor Fuller, chasing Andrew’s Raiders in the General, commandeered Cooper’s small locomotive “Yonah” and chased Andrews to Kingston, GA where he switched to a larger locomotive “Texas”.
  1. Rock piers in River just below Etowah Station were supports for a wooden covered bridge for pedestrians/wagons during Civil War and afterwards – dismantled around 1935 when new concrete bridge was constructed (Highway 293).
  1. Sally Hughes Ferry was located in vicinity of Wagon Bridge piers. Sally was a somewhat wealthy Cherokee Indian who owned property and several log cabins, barns, etc. in that area. Her ferry and real estate holdings were taken by white settlers during the Cherokee Removal of 1838 and the events that preceded it.
  1. Below Sally Hughes Ferry site is the old mill dam across the river that was used by Thompson & Weinman Company to generate electricity with water powered generators. The nearby abandoned brick building is the old City of Cartersville Water Works, which was built in the late 1800’s and operated until 1960’s. The City could no longer use the River as water supply after Allatoona Dam went into operation because of its effect on the River.
  1. Below there on the left side is Paga Mine property, which operated for almost 100 years mining barite, which ceased operation around 2003/2004. It was last operated by a division of Haliburton Corp.
  1. On the right side of the river is Old Mill Farm, which trains thoroughbred racing horses and during the 1950’s and 60’s trained two Kentucky Derby winners, Decidedly and Northern Dancer, who also won the Preakness and was narrowly beat for the triple crown at Belmont.
  1. Where Pumpkinvine Creek joins the river there was ancient Indian Village, with at least 3 mounds (left).
  1. Just down river is the famous Etowah Indian Mounds site which is now a state park with a museum.
  1. On the left, across from Etowah Mounds, is believed to be the site of the Cherokee Village and Mission called Hightower, reportedly the site of the last battle between Cherokees and General Sevier’s Militia from Tennessee in 1793; and, of a Moravian mission to teach Indian children.
  1. Cherokee villages along the right side of the river were burned and destroyed by American Revolutionary War soldiers under General Andrew Pickens of South Carolina near the end of the war, according to an affidavit given by John Wright, who was a small boy living at Hightower Village at the time and swore the affidavit in 1829. Mr. Wright stated that the soldiers did not cross the river and Hightower was not burned.
  1. The iron truss bridge just down river was constructed in 1886 on rock piers that pre-date the Civil War and was used until the concrete bridge was constructed in the 1980’s. The original wooden bridge was burned during the Civil War. The iron truss bridge replaced a second wooden bridge built after the Civil War in the late 1860’s. There are plans to restore the bridge for pedestrian usage with a series of hiking trails in the area.
  1. In the area of the iron truss and concrete bridges, an early pioneer, James Douthit, operated a ferry prior to the construction of a bridge across the river, and again operated a ferry after the Civil War prior to construction of the wooden bridge to replace the destroyed bridge. He is buried on the hilltop on the left, near the bridge.
  1. At or near the bridges, there were 2 Indian burial mounds, one on each side, which have been plowed under. The mound on the south (left) was within the River Chase Subdivision.
  1. The rock weirs at several places across the river were Indian fish traps that date prior to 1500 A.D.
  1. Down river, the river bends through the property of Confederate General PMB Young, an 1861 West Point classmate of Union General George Armstrong Custer. Troops commanded by Young and Custer fought against each other during the Civil War. After the War, General Young served as a United State Congressman and Ambassador to Guatemala and Russia. Custer went on to Little Big Horn.
  1. On the left side, just before crossing under the Highway 61/113 Bridge, one thousand years before the Etowah Mounds were built around 900 A.D., there was a large Indian village with a palisade wall around it. The village included 3 mounds and numerous burials have been excavated by archaeologists on the site. Spanish artifacts dated prior to 1600 A.D. have been found, leading to the belief that Desoto visited the village in about 1540. The mounds were used as fill dirt in construction of Highway 61/113 around 1940.
  1. On the right at Rowland’s Bend, a few hundred yards away is Ladd’s Mountain, upon which there were pre-historic rock walls that encircled the crest of the mountain. These walls were studied and diagrammed by Smithsonian Institute Archaeologists in 1886. There was similarity with the rock walls atop Fort Mountain in Murray County, Georgia. In 1936, the rocks were crushed and used to pave Highway 61/113 through Cartersville.
  1. The rail road trestle next to the Highway 61/113 Bridge was constructed originally about 1870 for the Cartersville Van Wert Railroad Company, with bond proceeds that were embezzled by Georgia’s Reconstruction era Governor Rufus Bullock, resulting in public scandal, resignation and criminal indictment and acquittal.
  1. Downstream on the bluff above the river on the left, until about 1900 stood the white columned plantation home of Mrs. Cecilia Stovall Shelman, which burned when struck by lightening. During the Civil War, Union General Sherman spared Mrs. Shelman’s home because of a past romance.
  1. Further downstream on the right lies the property of the Norton family descendants of the original settlers, the Sproull and Fouche families, who constructed the magnificent brick and white columned plantation home constructed in the late 1830’s. Former owner Sproull Fouche served in the United States Consular service in Romania in 1920’s and traveled as a commercial attache´ for the Secretary of Commerce in India, China and Japan.
  1. The next bend in the river travels through the property of the Knight family, descendants of William Henry Stiles, former congressman from Savannah, who initially acquired several hundred acres as a summer retreat from the coastal climate, but eventually moved his family to Bartow County in the late 1830’s. The Stiles were close personal friends with Robert E. Lee and kept up a friendship for many years. Mr. Stiles built his plantation home called Etowah Cliffs near the river, and his relative Juliette Gordon Lowe, as a child, visited several summers and swam in the shoals of the river. During the Civil War, General Sherman and several thousand Union soldiers forded the river at those shoals in 1864. Sherman telegraphed General Grant that he had crossed the “Rubicon” – During the 1850’s Mr. Stiles served as U.S. charge-d-affairs to Austria for several years.
  1. Down river is iron truss Milam Bridge which replaced the wooden bridge destroyed during the Civil War. The rock piers predate the Civil War. Thousands of Confederate and Union troops crossed the bridge and/or forded the river near here. In the 1950’s the last person electrocuted from Bartow County was sentenced to death for murdering a 12 year old girl from Rome, Georgia and throwing her body in the river from Milam Bridge after weighting her with chains and concrete blocks. The bridge was abandoned in the 1980’s.
  1. Near Milam Bridge, Euharlee Creek runs into the river in the small city of Euharlee, which was a farming community during the 1800’s. There was a grist mill with only foundations left, near one of the most picturesque wooden covered bridges over the creek.
  1. The river turns north now and after some distance passes under the iron truss Harden Bridge (formerly Gillem’s Bridge) which is still in use for cars, soon to be replaced with a new concrete bridge. The rock piers predate the Civil Ware and the former wooden bridge was crossed by thousands of Union troops under Sherman’s command. On the right bluff on both sides of the bridge are remnants of Civil War trenches built for protection of the bridge, but it was burned anyway. On the right is the antebellum home of Col. William Harden, who served the U.S. as agent in dealing with the Cherokee Indians prior to their removal to Oklahoma in 1838.
  1. Then there is a southerly bend in the river. In the middle of the bend on the left side is the site of an ancient Indian village that was excavated and reported upon by archaeologists working for the U.S. W.P.A. during the 1930’s with many significant artifacts discovered.
  1. Down river is Island Ford. An island used as a river ford prior to the construction of bridges. The island is now owned by 2 men from Cartersville. What would you do with it?
  1. After passing under the bridge at Highway 411, where Two Run Creek joins the river there is the site of Two Run Village, a Cherokee village of some size shown on maps dated as early as 1755. Many burials and artifacts have been discovered in the area.
  1. The next bend in the river is called Reynolds Bend, after the Benjamin Reynolds family who built a brick home in the 1840’s a short distance from the river. Again, it is still owned by descendants of the original builder
  1. In the middle of Reynolds Bend on the right is the Skinner/Bass plantation and home, complete with a widow’s walk. They were early settlers and the home was built in the 1840’s. It has been restored, but much of the property has been sold off.
  1. The rock piers in the river next are the ruins of Wooley’s Bridge, which was burned during the Civil War and never rebuilt. The Civil War era Wooley’s lived on the right side of the river.
  1. Also on the right side of the River can be seen where tracks once were for the Railroad from Rome to Kingston, and I am told that there are ruins of an old river crossing trestle, maybe over into Floyd County. This is the Railroad upon which the locomotive “Texas” traveled to Kingston and into the Great Locomotive Chase in 1862. I believe that this Railroad operated until the 1960’s, but I am not sure. At some point the iron tracks were taken up and sold for scrap iron.
  1. I believe it is just past Wooley’s Bridge on the left where Ravenel Cave is located. During the Civil War, the Confederate Government conducted a nitre extraction operation. See attached Exhibit “B” for further details.
  1. The next bend in the river loops around the current site of the Atlanta Steeple Chase, and into Floyd County.
  1. Just over into Floyd County is the site of the Bass Ferry. The Bass family bought the property in the 1840’s, but did not live on the property and operate the ferry until after the Civil War. Descendants of the Bass family owned the property until it was sold by my Great Grandmother Martha Gordon Gibson in 1954.
  1. The River and its tributaries from Allatoona Dam to slightly over into Floyd County is on the National Registry of Historic Places as an approximately 40,000 acres district since the mid 1970’s, in large part because of the area’s significance archaeologically as to prehistoric Indians, and the Civil War activities in the area; and because of the plantation culture and homes that predate the Civil War.




Some History of Cartersville -David Archer

One story is that Cartersville, Georgia was originally named for Farish Carter in 1846 as a jest. Col. Carter never lived here, but frequently traveled through visiting plantations he owned in different parts of the State. Originally from middle Georgia, he had acquired vast acreage in Northwest Georgia after the Cherokee removal in 1838.

The story of the naming of Cartersville is told in History of Barlow County, Georgia by Lucy Cunyus. (1933), at pp. 22-23:

“A little hamlet grew up where the railroad underpass is now below Cartersville, and was called ‘Birmingham’ by the Englishmen who came through this section in 1832.” Only one Englishman and his son remained to see this hamlet grow—David Lewis, who fought in the War of 1812 and is buried in the old Friendship cemetery, and one of his sons, Nathaniel Deery Lewis, b. in 1818 in Hereford, England…

One day Col. Farish Carter, who lived at Carter’s Quarters on the Tennessee road and traveled from there to Milledgeville frequently, stopped to see Mr. Lewis and jestingly suggested that he change the name of Birmingham to Cartersville for him. Mr. Lewis told Col. Carter he thought the town would grow further up the road and told him to tell the few settlers that were there about it. Col. Carter, still jesting, did so, and Cartersville became the name of the town which later was to become the county site and the largest in the county…”

Another story is that Cartersville was named for a Reverend Mr. Carter, a Georgia state legislator, who cast the deciding vote that resulted in the construction of the state owned W&A Railroad in 1836.

The town of Cartersville was originally incorporated in 1850 (Georgia Acts of 1949-50, p. 103). In 1872, the Georgia legislature reincorporated Cartersville, changing it from a Town to a City. “A bill to change the name to ‘Etowah City’ was protested by Mark A. Cooper, who claimed that there was already a renowned town by the name of Etowah and it had been a post office for 20 years.” Id., p. 24.

Both Etowah and Cartersville had been destroyed by Union forces under Gen. William T. Sherman in 1864. Cartersville was rebuilt, but Etowah was not. Sherman had also destroyed Cassville, the county seat of Bartow County, which was never rebuilt. By county wide referendum, Cartersville became the county seat of Bartow County in 1867.

Although Farish Carter was well known throughout the state of Georgia in the early to mid-1800’s, he really was never associated with Cartersville, other than the above stated “jest” of naming it for him. The Reverend Mr. Carter, whatever his name was, did not live here and is never known to have even visited Cartersville.

A few years after 1872, the City of Cartersville was providing utilities to its residents. From 1877 to 1892 water had been provided by a private company, Cartersville Water Works, which was bought by the City in 1892. Improvements were made and by 1929 the City operated a water system that had the capability of providing its citizens with 500,000 gallons per day from a spring near the Etowah River, with holding tanks and a reservoir having been added.

In 1888 the City granted a franchise to the Orient Illuminating Company to manufacture natural gas from coal and operate a distribution system. Some time prior to 1900, the City purchased the gas system and began manufacturing and distributing natural gas via its own system to residents.

By 1906 that new fangled electricity had been discovered. In that year the City erected an electric generator and plant. Soon Cartersville residents had electric lights and appliances.

Construction on a sewerage system for the City was begun in 1919 and completed within a year. By the year 1920 Cartersville residents and businesses were served by a fall compliment of utilities: water, gas, electricity and sewerage service, all owned and operated by the City of Cartersville.

David G. Archer
City of Cartersville
Sesquicentennial Celebration Chairman



Service To State and Country Is Legendary In Bartow County

Cartersville, Bartow County, Georgia is the home of former Georgia Governor Joe Frank Harris (1981-1989) and Georgia Supreme Court Chief Justice Robert Benham. Leadership and vision is a tradition. Former Cartersville Mayor John W. Dent, while serving as President of the Georgia Marble Company and President of the Georgia Chamber of Commerce, started the first Georgia Red Carpet Tour.

The leadership ranks at both state and federal levels have been filled by Bartow Countians. In 1922, at age eighty seven (87), women’s sufferage advocate and newspaper publisher Rebecca Latemer Felton became the first female to serve in the United States Senate. Her husband, Dr. William H. Felton had served in the United States Congress (1875-80).

Cartersville resident Amos T. Akerman served as United States Attorney General (1870-71) in the administration of President Ulysses S. Grant, was the first head of the Department of Justice upon its inception, and organized the investigative department that became the Federal Bureau of Investigation. He tried the first court case to enforce the Civil Rights Act in 1871.

Bartow County produced two (2) Confederate generals. General P.M.B. Young was an 1861 West Point graduate, best friend and roommate of General George Armstrong Custer. General Young later served in the United States Congress (1868- 1874). President Grover Cleveland appointed him Consul-general to St. Petersburg, Russia, and in 1893 as minister to Guatemala and Honduras.

Confederate General William T. Wofford had opposed secession as a delegate to the Georgia Secession Convention in 1861, but later served with distinction under General Robert E. Lee. In 1865 he was elected to the United States Congress, but not seated because of Reconstruction laws. He was defeated in an election for Georgia Governor in 1871.

Attorney Warren Akin argued the first case before the Georgia Supreme Court. Although he too had opposed secession, he served as Speaker of the House of the Georgia legislature (1861-1863) and was elected to the Confederate Congress in 1863, serving until the end.

English born resident Godfrey Barnsley had served by appointment of President Andrew Jackson in 1829 as vice-consul of the Netherlands and Sicily. He had served as President of the Savannah Chamber of Commerce. Sproull Fouche was appointed to the Consular service in Romania in 1920; and, in 1924 was appointed commercial attache to the American Legation at Bucharest, Romania.

William H. Stiles served in the United States Congress (1843-45), and in 1845 President James K. Polk appointed him charg’e d’ affairs to Austria. He was elected to the Georgia Legislature (1855-57), served as Speaker of the House, and elected to the Georgia Senate in 1858.

Mark A. Cooper, lawyer and businessman, developed mining and industrial interests in Bartow County after serving in the United States Congress (1842-43). He was defeated in a bid for the Georgia Governorship in 1842, and later served in the Georgia Senate (1876).

Accomplishments of Bartow County citizens has not been limited to governmental service. Artist E.D.B. Julio (1843-79) was most recognized for his famous painting “The Lasgt Meeting of Lee and Jackson”, but received national acclaim for other paintings as well. Jessica Daves was editor-in-chief of Vogue magazine and author of “Ready-made Miracle”, a history of the female fashion industry published in 1963.

Author Corra Harris (1869-1935) wrote twenty-eight (28) novels, including “Circuit Rider’s Wife”, upon which the movie “I’d Climb The Highest Mountain”, starring Susan Hayward was based. During World War I she was the first female war correspondent, for The Saturday Evening Post. She regularly wrote articles for the Ladies Home Journal, The Country Gentleman and the Atlanta Journal. She was a nationally acclaimed southern writer.

Charles “Bill Arp” Smith (1826-1903) was also a southern writer of national fame. A humorist in the Will Rogers vein, he wrote several books, and wrote articles for the Atlanta Journal that were syndicated in hundreds of newspapers nationally. “Bill Arp” became a household word.

Sam P. Jones (1847-1906) was the most famous evangelist of his day and conducted revivals all over the country. Ryman Auditorium in Nashville, Tennessee, home of the Grand Old Opre, was built for him to hold revivals.

Rudy York (1913-1970) played major league baseball for thirteen years. From 1934 to 1937 he was with the Detroit Tigers and hit 18 home runs in August, 1937, a record that still stands. He also played with the Philadelphia Atheletics, Boston Red Sox and Chicago Red Sox, hitting 277 home runs and compiling a .275 lifetime batting average. He played in 3 World Series and 3 All-Star games.

David G. Archer
City of Cartersville
Sesquicentennial Celebration Chairman




Seeking gold in 1540, Spanish explorer Desoto came through Bartow County. Along the Etowah River was an Indian village around a group of earthen mounds. Soon afterwards the population was decimated with diseases to which they had no immunity. The village and mounds were abandoned.

In the mid 1700’s the Cherokee moved into this area forcing the Creeks out. Neither the Creeks, nor the Cherokees knew who built the mounds along the river, nor who had lived there.

In 1844, a young Army Lieutenant, recently graduated from West Point, while in the area, heard of the Etowah Indian Mounds. He traveled by horse from Marietta, Georgia, through the Allatoona mountains to see the mounds, which were on the plantation of Col. Lewis Tumlin.

Lt. William T. Sherman and Col Tumlin became friends and the young soldier stayed several days in the Tumlin home, Glen Holly. For several years thereafter, the young soldier corresponded with his friendly host.

In 1864, then General Sherman was again in the area with 100,000 Union soldiers. Knowledge of the mountainous terrain gained during his earlier visit prevented General Sherman from following Confederate defenders into the Allatoona mountains.

While here, General Sherman wrote his wife Ellen that he was in that area of Georgia that she would remember he had “taken such a fancy”.

He longed to see his friend Col. Tumlin and to again visit the Etowah Indian Mounds. With several other Union officers, he rode up to Col. Tumlin’s house and knocked on the door, but as he wrote in his memoirs, “no one was at home”.

General Sherman then took his friends to see the mounds and they climbed to the top of the largest one. A Confederate artillery force on the other side of the Etowah River saw a group of Union soldiers on top of the mound, not knowing that Sherman himself was within range.

The Confederates opened fire. General Sherman and his friends were forced to evacuate their exposed position. Twenty years and war had altered the hospitality previously extended to General William T. Sherman. He never saw, nor heard from his friend Col. Tumlin again.

David G. Archer
City of Cartersville
Sesquicentennial Celebration Chairman




In an article published in The Tribune News in 1929, Judge John Henry Wikle wrote of his recollections of Cartersville as a child, a young lawyer, and an elder. Judge Wikle was born July 24, 1847 and died May 10, 1930.

He served three terms as Mayor of Cartersville between 1886 and 1898 and was the law partner of Confederate General William T. Wofford.

This article is reprinted with permission of The Tribune News.




My earliest recollections of Cartersville begin when my father moved here in 1851. Nine years later he purchased an interest in the Cassville Express and the Cassville Standard and it was in that city I received my first experience in editorial work. In 1866 I returned to Cartersville and commenced the practice of law, and in 1874 purchased the Cartersville Standard.

In those days Cartersville was a little town of about 1,000 people, but was known as one of the most progressive communities of Northwest Georgia. It was the trading center for eight or ten of the surrounding counties and it was not an infrequent sight to see the streets crowded with wagons and other conveyances from all parts of north Georgia.

The Western and Atlantic railroad, the state owned project operating between Chattanooga and Atlanta, came through here and was practically the only means of travel to any distance. Passengers and a large amount of freight consisting mostly of cotton, merchandise and building supplies, were carried.

Even in those days Cartersville was a town of some size. Where the hotel now stands was a large frame structure. Across from it was a two story brick building with a basement and there were many other two-story business buildings in the section. The bar rooms were located mostly on the east side of town. On the corner now occupied by the Scheuer Brothers was a two story building that in later years was replaced by a brick structure, not the same one standing now, however. It was owned by George Howard, who later moved to Atlanta. Large stores of the community had great porches in front of them. At almost any time the men-about-town could be seen lolling in the brick sunlight, helping themselves to the country cracker barrel and in their listless way discussing the politics and news of the time.

The residential section of Cartersville started about two blocks from the present business district and ran for some distance. Most of the houses were of staunch build and followed the design of the day. They were set far back from the streets and usually were made attractive by many flowers and gardens.

The countryside surrounding Cartersville held many manufacturing plants. Chief aniong them were mines that gave up iron, later made into pig iron and still later converted into metal utensils and kitchen ware that were sent throughout the South. Outstanding among these plants was the Cooper Iron works, the ruins of which are still standing. Near the latter works was a large brewery operated by a family of Germans which had immigrated here from the east.

Blacksmith shops, wagon companies and other now ancient enterprises were conducted by the business men of the community. This was a great wheat section prior to the war and farmers couldn’t obtain cars enough to ship their product. In those days trains ran with eight coaches, or cars, and each car would hold no more than eight tons.

Education was not lacking. Many private schools were here and at Cassville were two colleges, one the Cherokee Baptist college and the other the Cassville Female institute, a Methodist organization Pupils came from all sections of the state. Some of the outstanding educators of the time were teachers at the schools.

As news of the Civil war spread throughout the South, citizens of Cartersville joined forces with other Georgia detachments. The conflict was not felt here, with the exception of a constant call for food and clothing, until about 1864. During the early years I was in charge of enlistments. As Sherman and his army approached Cartersville the city was placed under martial law. All boys and men between the ages of 16 and 65 were pressed into service in an attempt to keep Atlanta from falling.

For some time the battle around Chattanooga were victorious for the wearers of the grey. But eventually the Federals passed thru. Skirmishes were engaged in at Dalton. On the hill here where the old Baptist church building formerly was, the Federals camped. At Allatoona there were a few small encounters, but not of such great importance as to be remembered as history.

Allatoona was burned. Cartersville, at least the business section, was laid in waste. Only one old building, on the corner of Erwin and Main street was left standing.

After the trail of devastation had been left by the advancing northern armies and the sword of Lee had been surrendered at Appomattox, Cartersville started its reconstruction period. The population was about the same as before the war. Buildings of better grade than those that had been here prior to the conflict were erected.

The city’s old reputation as a trading center returned and people from old sections, learning of the opportunities and climate here, moved to Cartersville to make the town their home. Cass Station at that time was almost the same size as at present.

Soon after the war there was an election to determine whether Cartersville or Cass Station should be the county seat. Cartersville won the balloting by a majority of about 400 votes. The first court was held in an old building on the corner of Main street and the public square.

Cartersville was in an era of growth. One might almost call the years soon after the reconstruction period a “boom.” The so-called boom never fell, never diminished. Cartersville continued to grow until it became the city of today. Though I have seen the city in the clutches of war and on the heights of progress, I have never seen it so progressive as today and I predict that Cartersville will continue its growth until it becomes one of the most outstanding cities of North Georgia.

David G. Archer
City of Cartersville
Sesquicentennial Celebration Chairman



If you don’t eat it, I will (A Civil War Episode) -David Archer

Pierce Young was a young West Point cadet in 1861, from Cartersville, Georgia. His roommate, George Armstrong Custer was a Yankee. They were best friends; but their worlds were different.

When the South suceded from the Union, Pierce followed his state, Custer followed the Union.

Both soon became Generals but for different countries and armies. As fate would have it, they met in conflict.

Early one evening in 1863, Custer was eating dinner in a commandeered Virginia home with his staff, reluctantly served by Southern women of the home’s family.

Rebels broke through the perimeter; Custer was forced to evacuate before he finished his dinner. Knowing his adversary, he told the hostesses to tell his Southern friend, General Young to enjoy his unfinished dinner.

Pierce entered the home a hero and finished his Yankee friend’s dinner After a good Southern nights sleep, breakfast was served by his grateful hostesses, but soon interrupted.

Union forces broke through the perimeter and Pierce and his staff were forced to evacuate before finishing their breakfast. Pierce, also knowing his adversary, told the hostesses to tell his Yankee friend Custer to enjoy the rest of his breakfast.

Custer re-entered the Southern home. Legend has it that he enjoyed the breakfast that had been left him by his old Rebel friend.

After the War Between The States the Rebel General Young went on to become a Untied States Congressman and Ambassador to Guatemala and Honduras. His Yankee roommate went to the Little Big Horn. Today, very few have heard of General P. M. B. Young. Everybody has heard of General George Armstrong Custer.

David G. Archer
City of Cartersville
Sesquicentennial Celebration Chairman



Leake Mounds Site Article Series – Scot Keith

The Archaeology and History of the Leake Site: A Prehistoric Ceremonial Center in the Etowah River Valley

This article series is dedicated to the archaeological details, history, and significance of the Leake Mounds and several related archaeological sites in Bartow County.

While most people in Bartow County know of the Etowah Mounds, not as many people may know that the Etowah River Valley held many more earthen mounds that were also constructed by the American Indian peoples who occupied and visited the valley over thousands of years. One of these mound sites, the Leake Mounds, is located in a large bend of the Etowah River, two miles overland and about three miles downstream of the more well-known mounds that take their name from the river. Predating the Etowah Mounds and occupied for approximately 1,000 years from circa 300 B.C. until 600 A.D., the Leake Mound site developed from a small local village into a large ceremonial center associated with a vast religious and cultural interaction network that stretched across eastern North America.

Article 1

The Leake Site: History of Discovery and Documentation



The bend of the Etowah River where the Leake site is located is known as Rowland’s (sometimes spelled Roland) Bend, after the landowner of the middle to late 1800s. This bend is labeled as such on numerous maps of the period, and a crossing/ford of the Etowah River is frequently depicted and labeled as Rowland’s Ferry (Figure 1).

Originally known as the Rowland Mounds after the landowner at the time of the Civil War, this group of mounds eventually became known as the Leake Mounds following the transfer of property ownership to the Leake family. The earliest known documentation of the Leake site occurred in 1883 by James D. Middleton (1883) and John P. Rogan (1883), both of whom were employees of the Smithsonian Division of Mound Exploration of the Bureau of Ethnology under the supervision of Cyrus Thomas, who synthesized their findings in his reports on the numerous mounds in the U.S. that his employees were recording (1891; 1894). Rogan conducted the Mound Exploration Division’s actual field investigations within Bartow County (he also excavated at Etowah Mounds). During the archaeological investigation of the Leake site, the author acquired a copy of Rogan’s field notes for his work at Leake (Rogan 1883), which include information on the mounds and a few rough maps of the site. Importantly, one of the maps (see Figure 2) show three mounds, the river, and the railroad, as well as the distances between the mounds and his calculations. While Rogan’s documentation is certainly not up to today’s professional standards, his plan map of the site provides very significant information about its layout that was previously lost due to the razing of the mounds circa 1940 for road fill. Upon locating this map, archaeologists were then able to use GIS to tie it to the modern ground surface through a process known as georeferencing, providing them with an idea of where the mounds were mapped on the ground at that time.

Figure 2. Map of Rowland Mounds by John P. Rogan, 1883

Figure 2. Map of Rowland Mounds by John P. Rogan, 1883

Rogan’s co-worker and colleague James D. Middleton also drew a map of the site (Middleton 1883) which also depicts three mounds (Figure 3). Like Rogan, Middleton also documented various mounds in Bartow County (and other Georgia counties), including the Leake site. From the documentation, we are unable to determine how Middleton’s work correlated with Rogan’s, in terms of the chronology and collaboration. While Rogan did excavate a portion of one of the mounds (Mound B), there is no evidence that Middleton actually excavated any portion of the site. Rather, his notes consist of a description of each mound and a map of the site (Figure 3), suggesting it may simply be that he cleaned up Rogan’s work for their boss Cyrus Thomas. While his map closely approximates Rogan’s in terms of the mound locations, the most significant component of Middleton’s documentation is the shape description of Mound C, as it is the only known for this mound.

Figure 3. Map of Rowland Mound by James D. Middleton, 1883

Figure 3. Map of Rowland Mound by James D. Middleton, 1883

The next known field documentation of the Leake site dates to 1917, consisting of a photograph of one of the mounds with Ladd’s Mountain in the background (Anonymous 1917). Discovered in the files of the Georgia State Archives during the 2004-2005 archaeological data recovery investigation of the site (Figure 4), this is the only known ground-level photograph showing the site prior to the razing of the mounds circa 1940 (Keith 2010). Apart from the mound in the foreground, also visible in the photograph are the railroad and its bridge over the Etowah, the southernmost knoll of Ladd’s Mountain to the right of the trees growing on the mound, and the Ladd’s Lime Works buildings and operations on the side slope below the knoll. The prominent summit on Ladd’s Mountain corresponds to the knoll shown just northeast of the label “Quarry Mtn” on the 1992 Cartersville 15’ topographic quadrangle, and was the location of a stone wall that enclosed this summit (to be discussed in a subsequent article in this series). The railroad also emerges from behind the mound in the far right center of the photograph, just barely visible.

Figure 4. 1917 Photograph of Mound B, Leake Site (Anonymous 1917). Original caption reads: “Indian Mound on Leake Property, 4 Mi. S.W. of Cartersville”

Figure 4. 1917 Photograph of Mound B, Leake Site (Anonymous 1917). Original caption reads:
“Indian Mound on Leake Property, 4 Mi. S.W. of Cartersville”

The perspective of this photograph indicates it is of Mound B, taken from the northern side of Mound A. This is suggested by the apparent proximity of the railroad to the mound, for Mound B is to the north of Mound A and is thus situated closer to the railroad. Also, the tall grass in the bottom of the picture frame suggest the photographer was standing on the northern edge of Mound A, which likely would not have been plowed due to the slope (similar to the periphery of the mound shown in the photograph). More evidence that this photograph shows the southern side of Mound B is the absence within the frame of the original course of the Dallas-Rockmart road (now Highway 113). Clearly visible in the 1938 aerial photograph (Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service 1938) seen below in Figure 5, this former road course cut into the southeastern portion of Mound A. This general course was in place in some form at least by 1876, as evidenced by its depiction in this location on a Civil War map (see Figure 1), and it also follows this course as shown on the 1940 Bartow County road map (Figure 6). This road crosses the river at the former location of Rowland’s Ferry, which appears to be in the same location as the current Highway 113 bridge. If the photograph is of the southern side of Mound A, then this road should be visible, yet it is not apparent. Thus, the photograph appears to be of Mound B.

Figure 5. 1938 Aerial Photograph Showing the Leake Mounds (Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service 1938), annotated?

Figure 5. 1938 Aerial Photograph Showing the Leake Mounds (Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service 1938), annotated?

Figure 6. 1940 Bartow County Road Map showing Leake Mounds

Figure 6. 1940 Bartow County Road Map showing Leake Mounds

By the time the 1943 aerial photograph was taken, several changes had occurred to the Leake site (Figure 7). Specifically, the Dallas-Rockmart Road was relocated to the northwest to the location that it follows today, so that is traverses directly over Mound B. The signature of Mound B is no longer indicative of trees, but rather of open ground. At this point, the above-ground portion of this mound would have been removed. Mound A still displays a similar signature to the 1938 aerial photograph, so it appears that this mound may not have been razed by the time of this photograph. Mound C is visible as an open area, suggesting that this mound was destroyed between 1938 and 1943, likely a result of the road building activity. The ditch feature visible in the 1938 photograph is largely indiscernible in the 1943 photograph.

Figure 7. 1943 Aerial Photograph Showing the Leake Mounds (Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service 1943), annotated?

Figure 7. 1943 Aerial Photograph Showing the Leake Mounds (Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service 1943), annotated?

Between 1938 and 1940, Robert Wauchope conducted documentary investigations at various archaeological sites in northern Georgia, and based on a visit to the Leake site, he characterized it as “three mounds, a village site, and a lithic station” (Wauchope 1966:238). He noted that one or more of the mounds was completely leveled during highway construction so that the site was “largely destroyed”, to the point that he could not find it during his return years later in 1957.

In 1940, local amateur archaeologist Pat Wofford, Jr. “observed the destruction of the mounds and salvaged as much material as possible” (Fairbanks et al. 1946:126). Wofford seems to have alerted archaeologists Charles Fairbanks, Gordon Willey, and Arthur Kelly of the significant remains, so that they came to visit the site, resulting in a co-authored short description of the site (Fairbanks et al. 1946). While they recognized the likely association of Leake with the vast Hopewell interaction sphere that developed circa 0-500 A.D. in the Eastern Woodlands in the area extending from present-day Wisconsin to Florida, although a year prior to this article archaeologist Antonio J. Waring, Jr. (1945) was the first to formally recognize the Hopewellian connections of Leake and Ladd’s Mountain.

Leake was not the subject of any other formal archaeological investigations for the next several decades. In 1986, archaeologists with the GDOT conducted an archaeological survey through the site as part of a proposed replacement and widening of bridges Highway 113, with the area examined restricted to a corridor along the road (Georgia Department of Transportation 1987). Following this, another survey which extended through the site was conducted as part of the road widening project, and several of the individual archaeological sites that make up the larger Leake site were recognized as potentially significant for the data they contained (Price 1994). The findings of that survey led to more detailed testing of these sites several years later (Pluckhahn 1998). Testing revealed extensive and significant deposits at the sites, and it was recommended that Leake be protected from any adverse effects from the proposed road widening, and that if the site were not able to be protected, then full-scale excavation designed to recover the data which would be lost by the road widening should be carried out. Because the road design could not avoid impacting the Leake site, large-scale data recovery excavations were carried out between 2004 and 2006 (Keith 2010). Overseen by the author of this article, these excavations uncovered approximately 50,000 square feet, resulting in the recordation of extensive archaeological deposits and tens of thousands of artifacts.

Several other archaeological excavations have been conducted at the site. In 1988, 1989, and 1990, archaeologists with the University of Georgia conducted three summer field school excavations at the site (Hally 1989, 1990a, 1990b; Rudolph 1989). Another investigation was spurred by the beginning stages of construction of an 84 Lumber Company facility on the site (Southerlin 2002). After construction activity exposed artifacts and midden deposits, artifact collectors began to take items from the site, and construction work was subsequently halted while a professional investigation could be conducted. As a result, the City of Cartersville made a land swap with the 84 Lumber Company, so that this tract within the site is currently protected from development.

Figure ? shows the location of the various excavations that have been conducted at the Leake site. These numerous excavations have yielded very important data that provide archaeologists with clues and information about when the site was occupied, what activities were conducted at the site, and the various peoples that lived at or came to visit the site.

More details on the archaeological findings and what they reveal to us about the Etowah River Valley – and beyond – will be included in another installment for this EVHS series on the Leake site. Stay tuned!

Figure 8. Map Showing Location of Excavations at the Leake Site

Figure 8. Map Showing Location of Excavations at the Leake Site

References Cited

Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service

1938    Aerial Photograph No. IZ-3-48. Aerial Photography of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, 1934-1954; Record Group 145; Cartographic and Architectural Records LICON, Special Media Archives Services Division, National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

1943    Aerial Photograph No. IZ-2C-52. Aerial Photography of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, 1934-1954; Record Group 145; Cartographic and Architectural Records LICON, Special Media Archives Services Division, National Archives, College Park, Maryland.


1917    Indian Mound on Leake Property, 4 Mi. S.W. of Cartersville. Hu-52, Nov. 1917. Photograph mmg01-0052, State Geologist Photographs and Negative Files, Department of Mines, Mining, and Geology, RG 50-2-33, Georgia Archives, Morrow.

Fairbanks, Charles H., Arthur R. Kelly, Gordon R. Willey, and Pat Wofford, Jr.

1946    The Leake Mounds, Bartow County, Georgia. American Antiquity 12(2):126-127.

Georgia Department of Transportation

1987    Projects BHF-018-1(41) and (44), Bartow County, No Adverse Effect Findings. Letter report from Georgia Department of Transportation, Atlanta to Mr. Louis M. Papet, Federal Highway Administration, Atlanta, Georgia.

Hally, David J.

1989    Excavations at the Leake Site. In LAMAR Briefs 13:6.

1990a  The Leake Site (9Br2). In LAMAR Briefs 15:4-5.

1990b  Leake Site Excavations. In LAMAR Briefs 16:1.

Keith, Scot J.

2010    Archaeological Data Recovery at the Leake Site, Bartow County, Georgia. Prepared for the Georgia Department of Transportation by Southern Research, Historic Preservation Consultants, Inc., Ellerslie, Georgia.

Middleton, James D.

1883          Material concerning the archaeology of Bartow County, Georgia. Manuscript 2400, Box 2, Georgia, Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Museum Support Center, Suitland, Maryland.

Pluckhahn, Thomas J.

1998    Highway 61 Revisited: Archeological Evaluation of Eight Sites in Bartow County, Georgia. Submitted to Georgia Department of Transportation, Office of Environment/Location, Atlanta by Southeastern Archeological Services, Inc., Athens, Georgia.

Price, T. Jeffrey

1994    An Archeological Resource Survey of Proposed Widening Along State Route 61, Bartow County, Georgia. Submitted to Georgia Department of Transportation, Office of Environment/Location, Atlanta by Southeastern Archeological Services, Inc., Athens, Georgia

Rogan, John P.

1883    Notes on Mounds in Georgia. Inventory of the George E. Stuart Collection of Archaeological and Other Materials, 1733-2006, Collection Number 5268, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Rudolph, James L.

1989    1989 Excavations of Mound A at the Leake Site (9Br2). In LAMAR Briefs 14:4-5.

Southerlin, Bobby G.

2002    Archaeological Evaluation of the 84 Lumber Tract, Cartersville, Georgia. Submitted to 84 Lumber Company, Eighty-Four, Pennsylvania, by Brockington and Associates, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia.

Thomas, Cyrus

1891 Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Mountains. Bureau of Ethnology,

Smithsonian Institution. Government Printing Office, Washington.

1894 Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology. Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1890-

  1. Government Printing Office, Washington.

Wauchope, Robert

1966    Archaeological Survey of Northern Georgia. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, Number 21, Salt Lake City, UT.

Waring, Antonio J., Jr.

1945 “Hopewellian” Elements in Northern Georgia. American Antiquity 11(2):119-120.



Cartersville’s Railroad Car Manufacturing Age

Cartersville’s Railroad Car Manufacturing Age

A Possible Discovery to Cartersville’s Post War Reconstruction
By Joe F. Head

Following the Civil War, Cartersville, for a short time, pulled itself back on track with a railroad manufacturing economy. Little known to today’s citizens of Cartersville and Bartow County is a long forgotten industry that thrived in the center of downtown Cartersville. These forgotten businesses spanned less than two decades, but provided a major boom to the post war city regarding jobs, growth and service to the railroad industry.

Well before the row of familiar buildings standing left and right of the Grand Theater, today’s Museum Avenue was a bustling manufacturing giant. According to 1870 deeds and newspaper ads Cartersville once had a thriving railroad car manufacturing industry located in the heart of what is now the downtown square adjacent to the CSX Railroad (Western and Atlantic) and Grand Theater vicinity.

This business existed between 1870 and 1880. According to deeds, it occupied a footprint of approximately four city blocks. Deed records “roughly” describe boundaries as being between Tennessee Street (including Gilmer Street) and west to the Western and Atlantic Railroad (W&A RR) with Main Street to the south and Church street to the north. The plant was composed of steam power tools, kilns, painting buildings, wood planer and carpenter shops.


car-factory2An article that appeared in the Cartersville Semi-Weekly newspaper on October 24, 1870 page 3 reveals an enthusiastic editorial about a proposed manufacturing company that would engage in the production of railroad cars. The article proclaims this business development as evidence of local prosperity and names the primary officer, Col. Padgett of Quitman, GA as the mechanical mind to lead the enterprise.

A follow-up editorial in the Cartersville Express on January 13, 1871 declares that all the Car Factory stock has been bought up, officers elected and a location for the business has been selected. That article continues with a flavor of chastising local talented citizens who declined the offer to participate as they must not have understood the good reasons for the business. However, the article concludes with a positive twist to proclaim that all would agree that it is all for the good improvement for “our miniature city.”

According to newspaper articles the corporation is headed by, E. N. Gower, President and H. Padgett, Secretary. (It also should be noted that E. N. Gower is a principle officer in the Gower and Jones Carriage business.)

By 1871 the Car Company is vigorously advertising in local newspapers. Initial ads feature the construction of railroad cars. Subsequent ads announce the company was authorized to expand to serve as a building association as well. The company revises its name to become the “Cartersville Car Factory and Building Association.” A number of deeds were discovered in the deed office that reflected land transactions on Cassville Road and other locations related to the Building Association activity.

When one considers the viability of a railroad car manufacturer, it becomes apparent that such an industry held merit in the area. Given the vital Western and Atlantic Railroad running between Atlanta and Chattanooga, it is plausible that a plant to manufacture cars would be useful. However, the added demand of local mining and its dependence on rail cars to transport ore to the main line is also a substantial reason to have such a convenient industry. And, just north was the Kingston wye and the Rome Railroad that also needed rolling stock.

Subsequent car factory newspaper advertisements would hype its services as offering contractors, builders and dealers fine materials in pine, walnut, oak, ash or poplar lumber in rough or dressed condition. Additionally the factory offers to fill orders such as sashes, blinds, doors, moldings, brackets and other items at low prices. They further tout offering passenger cars, boxcars, flatcars unlike any in the South. Some speculate that the factory could employ up to 400 hands.

As the factory builds out operations it begins to feature testimonials in the local paper including a strong testament from former Governor, Joseph Brown who proclaims the first cars turned out for the W&A RR are first rate.

The Cartersville Car Factory eventually negotiates to acquire the prominent Bolivar Scholfield Foundry in what seems to be a graduated deal between 1872 and 1874. The foundry was conveniently located to the Car Factory and may have adjoined the property. However, the foundry came with what appears to be a great deal of debt. As an expansion Mr. Charles Wallace financially backs the endeavor. He begins to piggyback on Car Factory ads as the new proprietor of the former Scholfield Foundry and the president of the Car Factory Foundry and Machine Shops.

By 1877 an editorial appears in the October 11, 1877 Cartersville Express newspaper by W. H. Hackett entitled, “Manufacturing in Cartersville.” It expresses the rich manufacturing opportunities and resources available in Bartow County. A portion of the article describes the Cartersville Car Factory and its location next to the Western and Atlantic Railroad. He includes a brief inventory consisting of a main building with dimensions of 40 x 80 feet, erecting shop of 40 x 100 feet, other buildings of equal size and machinery such as 30 horse power boiler and engine, 40 foot Daniel wood planer, double cylinder planer and machine saws, molding machines and tools. He concludes the Car Factory description portion of the article by advising it is now for sale.

According to an article that appeared in the Free Express on June 30, 1881 hard times had fallen on Bartow. It briefly encourages enterprising citizens to purchase the old car factory and suggested it be converted into a furniture factory. It further mentions how highly adaptable it would be for that purpose and plenty of timber can be had at any price. The article lists a variety of people, businesses and farms that are struggling.



By 1880 a competitive operation surfaces called the Georgia Car Company. This enterprise has indirect connections to the officials operating the Western and Atlantic Railroad. Deeds in the Bartow County Court House find this operation located about two tenths of a  mile south of the Cartersville Car Manufacturing site also adjacent to the W&A RR.

Deed and newspaper articles describe its footprint to be approximately four acres beginning at the intersection of Leake Street and fronting the W&ARR running 200 feet east toward Tennessee Street and cornered by the Wallace Foundry. Several deeds were filed to assemble an area of about 600 feet by 200 feet. (Approximately between current day Tribune News building on West Avenue and Leake Street intersection along W&A RR.) A June 9th 1881, article in the Express reveals that the City is delighted to announce the prospects of this car factory and that the authorities have exempted them from taxation for a term of five years.

A June 30th, 1881 article in the Free Press page 3, states that the company will be a boom for the town and double the machinery is expected to be installed as was first thought. It appears conditions were favorable to resurrect a car factory as a demand still existed for the industry and a waiting and skilled labor force was in place remaining from the first car factory of 1871.

Tragedy struck the Georgia Car Works on February 17, 1882 when a boiler exploded and killed six negro men. Those that perished were: Lawrence Choice, Matt Bowman, Hand Hammond, David Richardson, Richard Patterson and Sam Davis. Also Ellis Laws, Henry Hickson and Ed Hand were expected to die from severe burns. Mr. C. E. Lucas, inventor of the Lucas sleeping-car was also injured. Several others suffered broken ribs and burns. The explosion inflicted terrible damage tearing the greater portion of the building to pieces.

An April 6, 1882 article in the Cartersville Free Press offers an impressive description of the plant. It speaks of a 40 x 210 feet erecting building, 40 x 240 feet paint building, a working building of 40 x 180 feet, machine shop of 40 x 180 feet and a blacksmith shop of 40 x 90 feet, plus office buildings. The dry kiln is cited as the very first built in the south at a cost of $3000.00 and contains over a mile of pipe. The article mentions that the Car Works employs over 100 hands and added nearly 500 to the population of Cartersville.

The officers of this corporation are President John H. Flynn of Atlanta, Superintendent C.E. Lucas and Secretary/treasurer Major C. T. Watson. The clerk of the plant stated that currently they manufacture about twenty-five cars per week. Production primarily consists of freight, stock and coal cars and soon to be moving to passenger cars. The company will invest over $25,000.

Articles in the Cartersville Free Express between September 22, and December 8th, 1881 continue to credit the original Cartersville Car Factory with good pay and employing 150 hands. The promise of a second car factory along with existing gristmills and iron manufacturing are yet more reason to be encouraged for the future of the city.

According to the September 21, 1882, issue of the Free Press news the Georgia Car Company will be served by the foundry of Murry, Stephenson and Mc Entyre with forty hands currently employed. They already have orders for 800 car castings. The car factory will begin production with manufacturing five cars per day. Initial contracts cite the Memphis and Pickburg railways ordering 800 cars. A great deal of pride is touted that the car company will be able to produce and sell cars much more cheaply than other competitors.

The 1883, Cartersville City Directory lists the Georgia Car Company as being established in 1881 and making all classes of cars. It further states that it employs 200 hands, operates a foundry and has added greatly to the material wealth of the city.

It is not clear in deed records or news articles of what happened respectively to these two railroad car manufactures. They were obviously over lapping and competing for a short time. It appears the Cartersville Car Factory began to struggle by the late 1870’s and eventually closed.

A November 7th, 1883 deed reveals that William Noble, President of the Georgia Car Company sold what appears to be the core manufacturing property to Mr. Puckney S. Hightower consisting of 4. 5 acres. The deed describes the tract as likely being the production site between the Leake Street and W&A RR junction, running south approximately 600 feet and bounded on the east by Tennessee Street.

In retrospect, this research perhaps reveals a new piece of unknown reconstruction suggesting how Cartersville and Bartow County emerged from the post Civil War carnage. The railroad car manufacturing age coupled with mining and agriculture provided resurgence to employment and revenue allowing the populations of Cartersville to recover from post war destruction.

Catersville Public Square in 1850 projected over recent satellite imagery (right)

Above is an 1850 deed plat diagramming the Cartersville Public Square with numbered land lots. This plat is prior to the Civil War and the railroad car factories. As of today the only fixed or remaining building site would be the depot located in the center of the plat. (Deed Book I, Page 560, Bartow County Deed Office)




Cartersville Semi-Weekly, October 24, 1870

Cartersville Semi-Weekly, January 13, 1871

Standard and Express, February, 27, 1873

Standard and Express, August 7, 1873

Standard and Express, October 11, 1877

Free Express, April 6, 1882

Free Express, Page 3, June 30, 1881

Free Press, Page 3, August 25, 1881

Free Press, Page 3, August 11, 1881

Cartersville Express, Cover page, September 22, 1881

Free Express, December 8, 1881

Cartersville Express, June 9, 1881

Free Press, Page 3, September 21, 1882

Cherokee – Cartersville Resident Directory, 1883-84

Etowah Valley Historical Society Newsletter, January 1994

GenDisasters. Com, Cartersville, GA Car Works Explosion, Feb.1882

Waukesha Freeman Wisconsin, Car Works Explosion, February 2, 1882


County Records

Deed Book H, Page 206, 1848

Deed Book I, Page 560, 1850

Deed Book S, Page 304, February 1872

Deed Book S, Page 246-247, November 25, 1873

Deed Book S, Page 299-300, April 23, 1874

Deed Book V, Page 151, January 4, 1875

Deed Book X, Page 347-348, November 7, 1880

Deed Book W, Page 79-80, November 7, 1880

Deed Book W, Page 42, October, 11, 1881

Deed Book X, Page 347, November 7, 1883


Lynn Gentry, Bartow County Deed Office

J.B. Tate, Retired Professor of History, Kennesaw State University