Cartersville’s COVID Chronicles

April 2020                         by  Debbie and Joe Head

The Show Will Go On

In 2020, Bartow County, along with the rest of the nation, added a chapter to our local heritage as the community navigated its way through the COVID-19 pandemic. This article is intended to provide a snapshot of the health data for the county and activities that seemed to demonstrate a variety of ways of coping with the pandemic and not to draw conclusions or outcomes. The period observed was from March 7 through April 30, 2020.

As the photograph of the Grand Theatre marquis states, “This is only an intermission, the show will go on,” says it best. This article is written as testimony of how Cartersville and Bartow County co-existed with COVID 19.

At the close of 2019, the world was first alerted of an obscure viral threat emerging from Wuhan, China. Early reports suppressed the potential of this virus becoming a pandemic, but by the end of January 2020 the reality of a global plague became real and dangerously present in Bartow County. The world was in an official pandemic. The first countries hardest hit were China, Italy, Spain and eventually the USA. No hemisphere was exempt from some degree of infection and death.

FOLLOWING THE DATA

 The following is an informal graphic and snapshot of the daily impact the epidemic had on Cartersville and Bartow County. It is important to remember how this novel virus specifically unfolded and affected our community regarding daily life. Perhaps even more vital were the pace, number of cases, confirmed infections and deaths in relation to state and national morbidity comparisons. 

Cumulative and New cases over time.

It is imperative that local pandemic data be tracked and recorded even if only as an anecdotal reference for archival purposes. This work is intended as an informal attempt to document Bartow’s COVID 19 experience including data and narrative that describes the times as they unfolded.

The first diagnosed case of Bartow COVID-19 appeared at the Cartersville Medical Center around March 11 and was traced to a choir celebration held at the Church at Liberty Square on March 1 and March 8. Soon other cases surfaced from the same event. Even local state legislators were infected with the virus and were quarantined, one in a hospital; the other at home. Bartow jumped out early in the state’s statistics ranking in the top three counties regarding cases for the first month as reported to the Georgia Department of Public Health. Locals quickly realized that we were truly “in this together” if we were to avoid wide spread fatal consequences.  As a result, citizens willingly sheltered in, practiced social distancing, disinfected and took other precautions to overcome the spread.

The occurrence of new cases reported daily was a continual warning and metric with which local leaders made their decisions.  New cases reported in Bartow County are reflected in the chart below. Data reflected on a Saturday to Saturday basis over a 6-week period shows the number positive cases that were reported to the Georgia Department of Public Health.

FLATTEN THE CURVE ACTIONS

As the county and state saw an increase in confirmed cases, medical officials began to recommend preventative measures to slow the spread of the virus. At first schools, churches and theaters were asked to voluntarily close. As the virus took a deeper hold, local officials and the governor announced further measures mandating the closure of non-essential businesses and insisting the public limit social contact, trips to stores and begin to self-quarantine. 

Watching for new positive cases in Bartow

Eventually, Governor Brian Kemp, Bartow county commissioner Steve Taylor and Cartersville city mayor Matt Santini announced a shut down for 30 days and extensions were possible as information from state and federal data were provided. The county issued a shelter-at-home recommendation around March 12. (The state’s shelter at home regulation began on April 3, was scheduled to last through April 30, with an extension to May 13 for seniors and those with comprised health issues.)

Social distancing (physical separation) of at least six feet became the standard between individuals. As the federal government and state officials debated best practices to suppress the virus, much confusion existed within the community on how to cope. The question about the efficacy of the public wearing facial coverings became a heated issue among health professionals and the laymen. Approved personal protective equipment (PPE) such as medical gowns, gloves and masks were in acute short supply. Officials did not want citizens rushing to buy up vital supplies that were critical to health care personnel.

LIFESTYLE CHALLENGES

 Soon local citizens began to feel the weight of the shutdown. Sheltering in became restrictive, boredom set in for many and cabin fever soon surfaced among all communities. Restaurants were closed to in-store dining; barbers and salons were closed; gyms, schools, churches and theaters closings were extended; and local businesses such as bakeries, banks, garages and grocery stores reduced hours. Stores often provided antibacterial hand sanitizers or wipes at the counters.  The price of gasoline plunged to historic lows as a result of a reduced need to drive and an unexpected crude oil dispute between Russia and the Middle East.

Bartow citizens soon began to respond and adjust lifestyles to accommodate the mandates and avoid possible infections. Senior citizens took the threat more seriously as they were at greater risk and lived in a self defined “protective bubble.”  Downtown traffic became noticeably thin throughout the day. People were discouraged from attending group events, funerals, weddings, parties or workout classes. Such events found alternative means to deliver programs via internet streaming content, drive by birthday celebrations or simply postponing the program.  The local museums offered virtual tours via YouTube and online art classes through Facebook Live.

Creative drive-bys for various occasions were often seen in neighborhood yards.

Drive by parades for all types of celebrations

Locals stepped up to the challenge and found alternatives to a former normal and began a new normal of living. Many people tackled delayed tasks at home and started cleaning out garages, closets, attics, storage buildings and doing yard work chores. Goodwill announced that they would be closing until further notice as they had accepted all the donations possible for their capacity.

Fast food drive-through models were adopted by unexpected businesses. Some full service restaurants made the decision to close, but others chose to offer call-in and delivery or carry out service to keep employees in place. Eateries without drive through facilities such as Bobby’s Burgers resorted to 1950’s Happy Days curb service hiring cooks, curb hops and taking orders at the car. Firehouse Subs cleared dining tables and posted signs to respect social distancing. Longhorn and Applebee’s restaurants set up curbside pickup stations.

Longhorn curbside pickup with safety measures   

All Star Barber Shop complies with regulations.

 

 

 

Empty shelves, curbside pick ups and take out are the new normal

Delivery services as Doordash and Instacart saw a spike in business by shopping at grocery stores such as Ingles and Publix and food delivery from restaurants. Grocery stores offered on-line ordering service with delivery, parking lot pick up and senior shopping hours. The Cartersville Country Club kept the golf course open and offered a daily menu for pick up to its membership.

Proud parents celebrated curbside “in-abstentia”  graduation tributes for the senior class of 2020.  While other parents reached back to pioneer days and learned to “home school” their children first hand around the kitchen table, but enjoying the convenience of modern technology.  Military fly overs saluted our health care professionals at the Cartersville Medical Center by Blue Angels and C 130’s.

Graduation yard signs and 2020 tribute portraits at CHS campus

 

 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

C 130 flyover at Cartersville Medical Center

County Commissioner Steve Taylor and Cartersville Mayor Matt Santini paused to honor doctors, nurses and staff at the Cartersville Medical Center on May 12 for their courageous service during the coronavirus pandemic. 

Officials honor hospital medical staff

 

 

 

 

 

 

Covid test nasal swabs

Using a drive through model, Bartow County Health Department conducted COVID 19 tests at the Clarence Brown Conference Center.  

4 Way Lunch, Ross’s Diner and other family owned business shifted to serve pick up meals to go. 

 

Scott’s Walk-up BBQ served take out service throughout the quarantine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

School lunches were delivered during the shelter-in-place order

Public schools continued to provide the lunch program and bussed meals to the established bus stops for student pick up. Most churches such as Sam Jones Methodist, Crosspoint City and others began to deliver weekly sermons via on-line video on social media sites and their own websites. The practice of home – schooling rose in families as local schools were forced to offer on-line alternatives to the students.  Stories of teachers doing motivational drive-bys to student homes were posted on social media sites.

People began to sport homemade facial masks if they visited stores, banks, post offices, etc. Churches such as Ascension Episcopal and First Presbyterian offered daily drive by pick up meals for those in need. 

EVHS Member Judy Kilgore and daughter made 200 + masks.

Being homebound, people began to binge watch Netflix, Hulu and other streaming options. Many streaming services provided free programs to children and families including educational, physical activities, cooking and gardening advice to help keep viewers entertained.  As a substitute to personal face-to-face visiting, locals including senior citizens began to use Zoom, Skype and Facetime to connect with friends, families and conduct work meetings. Online tutorials offered locals tips on sanitizing goods, instructions on proper handwashing procedures and hygiene practices. Stores most often ran short of a few staple products that frequently included: toilet paper, ground beef, sanitizing wipes and bread. Many residents stepped up to sewing homemade masks and others volunteered to work in church soup kitchens or run errands for the elderly.

Locals tuned in faithfully (at least for the first couple of weeks) each afternoon to watch the president’s daily Coronavirus briefing. These briefings would last from one to two hours and covered details about the nation’s infections and deaths. Much of the coverage was focused on New York which became the COVID 19 national epicenter. The President and his advisors discussed the state’s needs for respirators, protective gear, beds, COVID testing, capacity and testing kits. Slowly his medical advisors, Dr. Fauci and Dr. Birx rose to the level of “folk heroes” as they fielded questions and brought some sanity to the crises. Their trusted voices clearly guided the nation and added confidence to how America should respond to the crisis.

Local radio and Atlanta TV stations aired special briefings. Sirius/XM satellite radio launched a 24/7 dedicated Coronavirus channel that show cased various experts, doctors, scientists and personalities that offered assessments, advice and commentary. 

Like other states and communities, locals began to lose jobs, unemployment claims spiked, small business owners closed down entirely or scraped by with reduced hours and services. Large chain stores such as Home Depot, grocery store chains, carpet mills, Anheiser Busch continued to operate, but smaller businesses such as downtown Cartersville clothing and home decorator boutiques, salons, diners and museums either entirely closed or attempted to migrate business to online options, phone calls, curb pickup and porch delivery.

Signs of the Covid-19 Quarantine

Many locals tried tirelessly to understand the data, charts and briefings in order to compare what was happening in Bartow and what may be coming. The media was centered around the pandemic and devoted the bulk of coverage to breaking news that dealt with how people were coping to flattening the metrics curve. Much attention was given to how individual states and governors were lobbying for medical resources to serve respective state populations. Governors pleaded for respirators, test kits, protective medical gear and field hospital bed space on a daily basis.  Many newscasters declared the virus as an invisible enemy and coined the President as a “War Time President” against an invisible enemy.

But ironically, the Cartersville Medical Center was not over run and the cases were managed most efficiently. A triage tent was set up in front of the hospital to deal with an anticipated on-slot of infections, but it really never happened. Due to a lack of need the tent was dismantled before the Governor announced a soft reopening of business on Friday, April 24.

SOCIAL MEDIA EARNED ITS ROLE

 Not only did social media help keep us connected, but it revealed how quarantined time was used and enjoyed. Locals posted projects, hobbies, games, cooking and other pastimes that filled the day.

Examples of how people shared what their quarantine activities included are reflected below with screen shots from one Bartow County resident’s Facebook page with the names redacted.

Social Media helped people stay in touch

Summary Statistics

 The first death in Bartow County was reported on March 28.  That number has grown to 30 at the time of writing this report and represents 10 % of the number of positive cases while the average in the state of Georgia was at 4% of the cases reported. It seems Bartow in the early stages of COVID-19 was a super-spreader hot spot.  With mitigation measures, however, the county was able to slow down the spread.

Total deaths of Bartow County residents related to COVID-19

As of Wednesday, April 29, 2020, Bartow lost 30 individuals to this invisible enemy.  According to WSB-TV Atlanta television station at the 4/24/20 4:00 pm news report, 19 (63%) of the 30 deaths were nursing home or assisted living center residents.  To combat the continuation of the high incidents of death, the National Guard was called up to help Georgia and Bartow County with cleaning facilities and education of workers as needed.  (WSB-TV) (The Daily Tribune, April 30, 2020)

 

Data as of April 30, 2020 at 7 pm

Georgia

Bartow

COVID-19 Confirmed Cases:

Total No. Cases (%)

No. Total Cases (%)

Total

26,264 (100%)

313 (100%)

Hospitalized

5,190 (20%)

119 (38%)

Deaths

1,132(4%)

30 (10%)

Conclusion

It is critical that we document and remember our local history for the benefit of future generations. This chronicle has been prepared as a real time reference for a quick look back when Bartow experienced its second pandemic and as a convenient measure for what may follow in coming months or years. Will we have a second COVID wave as with the Spanish flu, and if so, what have we learned?

NOTE: For a comparison to Bartow’s first pandemic see the article on Bartow’s 1918 Spanish Flu COVID-19 Not Bartow’s First Social Distancing Epidemic

Bibliography

Georgia Department of Public Health. Daily Status Reports:  https://dph.georgia.gov/covid-19-daily-status-report

Sasso, Michael & Newkirk, Margaret  April 24, 2020 Reopening a small corner of the U.S. in shadow of virus death   https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-04-24/georgia-county-steels-itself-to-reopen-despite-10-death-rate

Staff Report (2020, April 22) Feelings mixed on reopening of businesses. The Daily Tribune News

 Staff Report (2020, April 30) End nears for shelter-in-pace order, extension undecided. The Daily Tribune News.

Swift, J. (2020, April 19) Agencies present conflicting data on senior care COVID-19 deaths. The Daily Tribune News

 Swift, J. (2020, April 25) CMC CEO says hospital hit COVID-19 peak 2-3 weeks ago. The Daily Tribune News

 Swift, J. (2020, April 26)  Bartow’s COVID-19 death rate almost doubles national averages, but questions arise over figures.  The Daily Tribune News.

 Swift, J. (2020, April 26) The First Line, infectious disease specialist recounts confronting COVID-19.  The Daily Tribune News.

Swift, J. (2020, April 30) Department of Public Health official says COVID-19 spikes, waves remain possibilities. The Daily Tribune News.

 (2020, April 25) 4:00 p.m. WSB-TV Newscast

(2020, April 2) Governor Kemp issues shelter in place order. https://gov.georgia.gov/press-releases/2020-04-02/governor-kemp-issues-shelter-place-order

 

 

 

 

 

COVID-19 Not Bartow’s First Social Distancing Epidemic

By Joe Head

April 12, 2020

Homemade masks during the Spanish Flu pandemic of 1918

Never in a hundred years! How often have you heard or uttered that phrase meaning you will not see such an event in your lifetime? Well, it is now the 100 years!  

Twenty years into the 21st century an international pandemic has produced an historic crises for the nation and world with a novel virus known as COVID-19. As a result Bartow finds itself once again in the grip of a national and international epidemic that relies on physical distancing, clean hands, covered noses and mouths to mitigate a virus 100 years later.

Take a look back, just 102 years ago. In 1918, Bartow County suffered, along with the nation, its worst pandemic on record, the Spanish Influenza or La Grippe! World War I was raging and the world was sick.

According to the October 18, 1918 Annual Report of the Georgia State Board of Health, a sobering report was presented on the status of the epidemic in Georgia, specifically citing Cartersville. It included a mention of new cases within the previous 24 hours. Statewide there had been 2,749 new cases, with 48 deaths in one day. Hardest hit was Cartersville, with almost 1,000 new cases the previous day occurring on October 17, 1918, according to the data published. Cartersville’s population at that time was approximately 4,200.

Camp Gordon, 12 miles from Atlanta

  It is not precisely known how the pandemic originated, but in Georgia it appears to have begun at Camp Gordon (12 miles outside of Atlanta) among the WWI recruits, as it did in many other states. As soldiers were transferred from base to base readying for the Great War, infections broke out on most military bases. Eventually the base was quarantined, but not before the plague crept into the Georgia population. (Several Bartow boys died from the flu at Camp Gordon.) The global origin of the Spanish flu is uncertain, but was likely coined as a result of the massive devastation it caused in Spain during 1918. It appears the novel COVID 19 virus first surfaced in Wuhan China in late 2019 and spread across the continents. 

Atlanta Mayor Asa Candler (former Cartersville resident) took steps to close schools, churches, theaters and other venues that attracted large crowds. He banned soldiers from the city, but stopped short of closing businesses. La Grippe, an outdated term for a highly contagious flu, introduced the need for physical distancing between individuals as a mitigation step to manage the spread of the virus. The University of Georgia suspended classes.

On the home front, Dr. Howard Felton, (Cartersville’s version of doctors Fauci and Birx) head of the Cartersville Board of Health advised of precautionary measures that should be taken by the city. He asks for the schools, theaters and churches to be closed. Among the first to respond were Sam Jones Methodist, First Presbyterian, Felton’s Chapel and First Baptist churches. He followed up with a letter to the Mayor indicating that the virus affects the weak, rundown and all ages. Speculation is that it leads to pneumonia and death.

Following the report that Cartersville experienced 1,000 cases in one day, Dr. Felton refuted the information in an October 20 article posted in the Atlanta Constitution. According to Felton, the city has 150 cases and the county has about 800 cases. He adds the situation is serious in Cartersville and four of the five doctors are ill with the disease. (The original report may have combined the city and county numbers -950- to estimate the 1,000 cases.)

By late October 1918 more than 250 cases of the flu had been reported in Cartersville.

1918 Bartow family during Spanish flu

On October 24, Dr. Felton, took more dramatic action to slow the virus. He recommended to the mayor an extension of the ban indefinitely. He insisted on a ban to stop the promiscuous spitting of tobacco products and phlegm on the sidewalks to be enforced with fines ranging from $10.00 to $200. He ordered signage to be posted warning of fines and good conduct to prevent infections.

Local physicians were working night and day to treat the ill. The first cases were reported in the county among large families. Dr. Felton mentions that large rural families were more likely to spread the virus quickly. As the situation worsens, Dr. Felton begins a series of newspaper articles to instruct on how to avoid the virus and home care for the sick.

His advice includes: avoid large groups, keep hands out of mouth, cover mouth/nose when coughing or sneezing, keep feet dry, stay out of drafts, wash hands frequently, de-clutter the sick room, use no rugs, stay in a well – ventilated room, cool compresses or even sleep in a screened-in room for fresh air and use individual wash basins and towels. He further advises a soft, but nutritious diet that may include: milk, soft boiled eggs, toast, stewed fruits, oatmeal and hominy.

Also, he recommends feeding the sick from separate dishes if possible. If a fever or pinkish phlegm or sputum should appear, call a doctor. He clearly advises caretakers to wear a mask made from gauze as the virus is airborne. He even provides sewing instructions and follows with instructions to boil masks for reuse. He instructs how to use a thermometer and encourages the use of wearing an apron or gown when caring for the sick. Another article advises how to avoid catching the flu followed by tips of what to do if you do contract the flu. 

The situation in Cartersville continues to decline in the fall of 1918. As a result Dr. R. E. Wilson attends a Chicago Conference to learn more about the flu and how to combat it. He learns that from September 18 to December 1, some 350,000 US civilian deaths are expected. Among other precautions, the conference encourages the use of gauze masks.

An article from the Los Angeles Evening Herald is printed citing experts disagree about the use of masks and ask for such practices to be deferred. Their argument centers around the efficiency of face coverings.

Atlanta newspapers feature Dr. William Brady’s “Health Talk” column and a call to centralize case reporting for tracking purposes. The flu was characterized as tricky and also known as la grippe. Another Health Talk by Dr. Brady featured information that any person resembling having a cold should keep a minimum of five feet away as coughing, sneezing or laughing sprays the surrounding area with droplets. The Atlanta Journal printed a call for women to sew 100,000 masks to meet the need.

Ad in Bartow Tribune newspaper

 Some preachers published articles that the epidemic is a curse of God. The tabloids carried ads for elixirs, tonics and certain whiskeys that were touted to remedy the illness. Likewise, recipes for poultices to be applied to the throat, chest and feet were lauded as treatments. Concoctions of boiled onions, apple vinegar thickened with rye meal and other brews often were tried to overcome the suffering.  

Dr. A. B. Greene is quoted in the paper urging people to place oily preparations in their nasal passages. It is his opinion that germs have a difficult time living in such substances.  

In late November, the Cartersville council asks several doctors to inspect the local schools to determine if they can be reopened. Local doctors agreed to conduct rotations among the schools. Students were asked to report and inspections were made over a week. The East Side School attendance was 50% and the West Side School was 90%. The doctors concurred it would be permissible to allow schools to resume, but any student showing symptoms would be sent home immediately. However, by January 16, 1919 the schools had to be closed again. Soon the virus began to break out in the convict labor camps first appearing at the Hall Station camp. Medical professionals were advocating for the public to be “inoculated”. A popular event was the county fair and many advocated for it to not be canceled.

The resurgence saw a presence of the Red Cross to begin teaching home health care and trying to mitigate sickness in large families. They, too, were advocating for entire families to get inoculated. Even as late as February of 1920, local schools were advised to not allow students to gather in groups or around the warming stoves, no dry sweeping of the floors, or spray floors before sweeping, try to keep room temperatures cool and to immediately report children with sniffles and colds.

A conference was held in Macon on February 2, 1919 to discuss the influenza. The presentation included data of estimated cases to date and that the epidemic will cost the state over 45 million dollars.

In a local book entitled, The Country Doctor’s Wife written by Ora Lewis Bradley a chapter is dedicated to the many Dreaded Diseases suffered in Bartow County. She mentions diphtheria, typhoid, tuberculosis (consumption), la grippe and pneumonia all of which took a human toll on early Bartow county. Additionally, the newspapers of 1870 to 1920 carried stories of small pox, sick farms and rumors of other illness that often were not true and were retracted.

By late 1919 the Spanish Flu had run its course. On January 15, 1919, The Atlanta Constitution reported that 30,768 Georgians died of influenza to that date. The nation suffered 675,000 deaths and the world lost 50 million souls. It appears early record keeping regarding cases and mortality in Bartow County were not available in sources found for this research.

Even today some native Bartow residents recall their grandparents speaking of the Spanish flu. Shirley Perry of Cartersville recalls her dad, Thomas Bradley Hendricks, who grew up in the Dewey community of northeast Bartow County sharing a story. He was five during the flu and often shared the stories of his parents about how the family suffered during the epidemic. His parents often related how hard the families around them were hit in the Gum Springs and Folsom area. He shared that entire family units were wiped out with the flu and many were buried in the Hayes and Hendricks cemeteries. 

EVHS member Sam Graham also recalls stories from his grandfather who contracted the flu. He was one of eight children reared on a farm. While in the army he was confined to a leaky tent with rain water constantly dripping on his bed. He did survive the flu. 

Janet Neel, near White shares a letter that her grandmother  (Oviedo, Florida) wrote to her grandfather who was stationed in Ireland during WWI. She updates him on the Spanish flu indicating the family is still safe, but the schools and churches have been closed by order of the government. She mentions that the doctor has inoculated many, but the government stopped inoculations as they needed the serum for the army. Her other grandfather (Clonts) living in Bethel near Hiram also spoke of seeing friends one Sunday at church and they were dead the next Sunday.

Upon this quick reflection, it is clear Bartow is not new to the scourge of a viral epidemic. Research clearly shows Bartow history has grappled with isolation and social distancing well before it became again fashionable in 2020. Perhaps century old advice and stories still have lessons of value in today’s modern world.

_____________________

Appendix

A summary of suggested mitigation actions 100 years ago vs today’s COVID -19

Mitigation Suggestions19182020
Cover nose and mouth when coughing/sneezing/laughingYesYes
Keep physical distance of 5 – 6 feetYesYes
Wash Hands oftenYesYes (20 seconds)
Wear MasksYesYes 
Sleep/Rest in well ventilated roomYesNo
Post hygiene signs of directions to followYesYes (digitally mostly)/ Television/Newspapers
Close venues with crowds: theaters, churches, schools, etc.YesYes
Keep feet dryYesNo
Recommended home-made masks with directions providedYes (news articles)Yes (digitally)
Refrain from promiscuous spitting of tobacco products and phlegmYesNo
De-clutter sick roomYesNo
Face covering controversyYesYes

1918 Spanish Flu Tips About Social Distancing

Tips drawn from a variety of national newspapers

Christmas 1918: How Americans celebrated holidays during last pandemic

1. Stop Kissing and keep five feet of distance between persons

2. Avoid using public pay phones

3. Funeral gatherings banned

4. Schools, Salons, Theaters, Saloons and Churches closed

5. City Wide Mask Ordinances to be implemented

6. Quarantine Regulations printed in local papers and posted in public spaces

7. All Influenza cases must be reported

8. Stop spitting on public sidewalks

9. Gatherings only permitted in open air spaces

10. Breathing remedies and rubs advised (Liniments, Gargles, Vapor Rubs, Nostriola, Atomizers)

11. Keep warm, dry, out of drafty areas and eat a healthy diet with plenty of water

12. Avoid stress, worry and anxious situations

13. Walk or bike to work, avoid trains and buses

14. Avoid common drinking cups and hand towels

15. Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing

16. Wash hands frequently

17. Clean door knobs and typewriter keys often

18. Post notices on your front door if influenza has infected a family member

19. Keep clothes clean, declutter your home, remove trash often and wash food well

20. Get Inoculated, it causes no harm

To read a companion article about Cartersville’s COVID 19 Chronicles visit:  https://evhsonline.org/archives/48827

Bibliography

Note: Some article titles have been paraphrased or abbreviated

Health Talks, Atlanta Constitution, February 2, 1918

Flu Treatments, Atlanta Constitution, February 23, 1918

Half of Gordon Banned to City of Atlanta, Atlanta Constitution, September 21, 1918

University of Georgia Closes, Atlanta Constitution, October 19, 1918

Defer Action to Wear Masks, Los Angeles Evening Herald, November 7, 1918

100 Thousand Masks Needed, Atlanta Constitution, October 4, 1918

Precautionary Measures, Tribune News, October 10, 1918

Flu Ban Extended Indefinitely, Tribune News, October 17, 1918

Cartersville Flu Report Exaggerated, Atlanta Constitution, October 20, 1918

Dr. Felton Extends Ban, Tribune News, October 24, 1918

Church Ban Relaxed, Bartow Tribune News, October 31, 1918

Home Care is Needed in all Influenza , Tribune News, October 31, 1918

Home Care is Needed in all Influenza, Bartow Tribune, November 7, 1918.

Dr. Wilson Attends Chicago Conference, Tribune News, November 12, 1918

Schools Resume, Tribune News, November 21, 1918

30,768 Georgians Die, Atlanta Constitution, January 15, 1919

Schools Close Again, Tribune News, January 16, 1919

Health Talks, Atlanta Constitution, Atlanta Constitution, January 1, 1919

Epidemic of Flu to Cost State 45 Million, Atlanta Constitution, February 1, 1919

School Instructions, Tribune News, February 10, 1919

Flu Conference Held, Atlanta Constitution, February 2, 1919

6018 Flu Cases in State, Atlanta Journal, March 27, 1919

Ban Lifted, Tribune News, February 26, 1920

Books, Reports, Internet, Societies

Annual Report of the Georgia State Board of Health, 1918

The Country Doctor’s Wife, Ora Lewis Bradley, 2014

Influenza Encyclopedia, University of Michigan

https://www.influenzaarchive.org/cities/city-atlanta.

htmlwww.historyofvaccines.org/content/blog/spanish-influenza-pandemic-and-vaccines

Bartow Genealogical Society 

Acknowledgements:

Debbie Head for her editorial contributions

Sam Graham for his research assistance

Margaret Mathison, RN for her advice

Anna Maria Floyd, Bartow County Health Department

An Efficient Fire Department for the City of Cartersville

Sam Graham

This brief paper covers the changes in Cartersville’s fire service from 1867, when there was no fire department, until 1918, when the fire service included a municipal water system, full-time professional firefighters and a motorized engine; the basics of the system which is still in use today.

Early Years

In the years following the Civil War, the citizens of Cartersville were in the process of rebuilding upon the ashes left by Sherman’s troops.  At 7:00 P.M. on January 4th, 1867, fire broke out in one of the buildings on Main Street, west of the railroad tracks.  Several buildings were consumed by the flames, and the office of the local newspaper, the Express, which was in the path of the conflagration, was demolished in an attempt to stop the spread of the fire. The Express was soon back in business, and the issue of January 11, 1867 described the futile attempts of the citizens to fight the fire “without the aid of an engine and in the absence of an organized fire company”.  On April 27, 1870, another fire occurred, destroying the entire block of buildings on the west side of the depot.[i] Cartersville was still in need of an effective fire department.

In 1873, the City purchased the lot at the corner of Erwin Street and Church Street, “with the view of erecting thereon a Fire Engine and Market House on the first floor, and a City hall and Council Chamber on the second…”.[i]  A volunteer fire company was organized, a new hook & ladder was purchased, and a

1. Firefighting Apparatus Building, built ca. 1873

building erected on the lot for the storage of firefighting equipment.  There was a bell tower, and in the event of a fire, the bell was rung to alert volunteers.[i]  In February of 1877, the company had dissolved, turning over their equipment to the City Council.  The Council immediately began efforts to organize another fire company.[ii]  Over the next 30 years, interest in the department fluctuated, and there were several reorganizations.  Lack of participation was a continual problem with the all-volunteer department,

. 1898 Competition Team

and local leaders attempted to stimulate interest with various social events, including meetings, banquets, parades and competitions, or “tournaments”, with other departments.  In 1889, the City’s first water system was completed.  Prior to this time, Cartersville’s water sources consisted of wells, cisterns and springs.  The city never purchased a hand engine or steam engine, using only the hook & ladder, hose reels and hose carts; all hand-drawn equipment.  With these conditions, and having to rely on volunteers exclusively, results were unpredictable.  It wasn’t until 1909, when the city hired two men as firefighters, that an efficient & reliable firefighting force became a reality.

A Professional Fire Department

In August of 1905, the city council authorized the purchase of a wagon and two horses for the fire department.[i]  The wagon, which would serve as a hose wagon, arrived in November, 1905.  Built by G. W. Walker of Gainesville, Georgia, at a cost of $300, the wagon was to be stored in Bradley’s shop on West Main Street until a team of horses could be purchased.[ii]  The wagon was still in storage, in the Anderson Livery stable, in November of 1908, when Sheriff T. Warren Tinsley traveled to Indianapolis, Indiana, & purchased a pair of horses.  According to the Cartersville News, November 19, 1908, “They are a magnificent pair of dark bays, four and five years old, weighing twelve hundred pounds or more and measuring something like sixteen hands in height.  Everybody who has seen them pronounces them a splendid pair of animals and seemingly fitted to the work.”   The city rented a small building on Erwin Street, south of the Anderson Livery, from Dr. Thomas Baker to serve as a fire station.  It was equipped with a “Hall’s patent harness”, which hung overhead, and was lowered onto the horses when the fire alarm sounded.[iii]  The Council hired two men, Cartersville’s first paid firemen.  They were Gideon W.

Hendricks, fireman, and Will Haney, driver.  Living quarters were prepared in the rear of the station, and

1. First Manned Fire Station. Image detail from 1909 Sanborn Fire Insurance Company map.

the firemen remained on duty around the clock.[i]

In February, a telephone was installed, and the City’s fire protection was made even more efficient.  Residents now had only to dial 38 to report a fire.  The two men on duty would respond immediately and begin fighting fire, receiving assistance from the volunteers who responded.[i]  The wagon carried some 1200 feet of hose, ladders, chemical extinguishers (soda & acid) & tools.[ii]  A hook & ladder was still in

1. 1909 Hose Wagon

service, as well as the hose reels.  Presumably, these were still stored at the old Church St. station, given the limited space on Erwin Street.

1. Gideon Hendricks, CFD’s first paid Fire Chief

On April 1, 1909, the Cartersville City Council elected Gideon W. Hendricks the fire chief, making him Cartersville’s first professional fire chief.[i]  Hendricks, age 31, only stayed with the department a few months, possibly a year.  The 1910 census, taken in April, shows him living at the home of his father, Judge George W. Hendricks, on Bridge St. (Etowah Dr.), with the occupation of “brakeman”.[ii]

In 1910, Hoyt Hazlewood was hired as driver and Albert A. McEver as fireman.[iii]  The photo of Hazlewood & McEver (below) illustrates the chemical extinguishers in use at the time.  The gong located below the feet of the men, served as a warning, much the same as sirens on modern fire apparatus.  Nothing certain is known about the two dogs pictured, but the Cartersville News of July 10, 1913, reported that, while en route to a fire, “the fire wagon ran over and killed ‘Blitz’ the pet dog of the fire boys.  This was indeed a sad loss, as the little dog had been a pet around the fire house for the past four years and in the past few months had become so well trained as to run errands for the boys, such as bringing and carrying articles to and from the fire house which they desired sent or brought.  The little dog was buried yesterday morning in the rear of the fire house building and numbers and numbers of people have called by and expressed their sympathy to the boys in the loss of their little pet.”

1. 1909 Hose Wagon; the men pictured are believed to be Hoyt Hazlewood and Albert McEver

Bruce Wofford replaced McEver in 1911.  His employment seems to have been cut short by an injury sustained while on duty.  On Wednesday, June 14, 1911, while working in the feed room at the fire house, Wofford fell several feet and injured his left side.[i]  He doesn’t appear on subsequent fire records for the year, and his position was filled by volunteer Henry Collins in January, 1913.[ii]

At a meeting of the fire department in February of 1911, Walter R. Satterfield was unanimously elected chief of the department.  Satterfield was a veteran of the volunteer department, having been a member since the 1880’s, and having served in the position of chief in the 1890’s.  He had also served the city as
alderman, as well as having interests in the mining industry.[iii]

7. Walt Satterfield

1914 began with Satterfield being reappointed to the position of chief, and Hazlewood & Collins as paid firemen.[i]  Notable fires for the year were the almost total loss of Judge Watkins’ house on Douglas St., a fire at the Seaboard Depot and the Stanford Brothers’ store & bakery on Main St.[ii]

In February of 1915, the city of Chatsworth was in the process of organizing a fire department, and purchased from Cartersville one of the old hand reels.  Chatsworth’s chief also expressed interest in the old hook & ladder, but the record is unclear as to whether he purchased it.[iii]  It appears that the success of Cartersville’s fire department had rendered the old hand-drawn equipment from the all-volunteer days obsolete.

In the Spring of 1915, Cartersville received a reduction of 15% to 20% in its insurance rates when the City’s fire risk was reassessed by a representative of the Southern Underwriters Association.[iv]  This was due in part to the two paid firemen and other improvements made in the fire department.

In 1916, Hoyt Hazlewood was named Fire Chief, a 2-year appointment.[v]

In May, 1917, the new City Hall building at the corner of North Erwin Street and West Church Street was completed. The fire department moved into the new building, but the horses and wagon would only occupy it for a few months.[i]

1. 1917 City Hall Building

In April, 1918, the City accepted delivery of a new Model 75 American LaFrance pumper.[i]  This was Cartersville’s first motorized fire apparatus, and for the first time, the department was able to produce its own water pressure for firefighting. Manpower was increased to three firefighters (including the Chief). Judson O. Eaves was hired to operate the new pumper, and served as Chief until 1923.[ii]

9. CFD’s first motorized apparatus
[1] Columbus Daily Sun (Columbus, Georgia) April 30, 1870, GenealogyBank, WWW

[1] The Standard and Express (Cartersville, Georgia), January 23, 1873, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS (Etowah Valley Historical Society)

[1] The Standard and Express (Cartersville, Georgia), January 30, 1873, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] ­­­­­City of Cartersville Council Proceedings, February 7, 1877, Cartersville City Hall

[1] ­­­­­City of Cartersville Council Proceedings, March 5, 1877, Cartersville City Hall

[1] Cartersville News (Cartersville, Georgia), August 10, 1905, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] ­­­­­Cartersville News (Cartersville, Georgia), January 21, 1909, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] ­­­­­Cartersville News (Cartersville, Georgia), January 21, 1909, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] Cartersville News (Cartersville, Georgia), February 18, 1909, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] Sanborn Map of Cartersville, Georgia, March, 1909

[1] ­­­­­Cartersville News (Cartersville, Georgia), April 8, 1909, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] 1910 United States Census, Bartow County, Georgia, Ancestry.com, WWW

[1] ­­­­­Graham, Sam. CFD Rosters Compiled from Fire Report Books, Paid. MS Word file.

[1] ­­­­­Cartersville News (Cartersville, Georgia), June 15, 1911, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] Cartersville News (Cartersville, Georgia), January 2, 1913, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] Cartersville News (Cartersville, Georgia), February 9, 1911, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] ­­­­­The Bartow Tribune (Cartersville, Georgia), January 8, 1914, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] The Bartow Tribune , (Cartersville, Georgia), September 10, 1914, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] Cartersville News (Cartersville, Georgia), February 8, 1915, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] ­­­­­Cartersville News (Cartersville, Georgia), March 11, 1915, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] ­­­­­The Bartow Tribune (Cartersville, Georgia), January 6, 1916, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] The Bartow Tribune (Cartersville, Georgia), May 10, 1917, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

[1] The Bartow Tribune (Cartersville, Georgia), April 18, 1918, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS [1] ­­­­­The Tribune-News (Cartersville, Georgia), May 3, 1923, Microfilmed Newspapers, EVHS

The Life and Times of Henry Clay Smith:

A man out of slavery overcoming and achieving the extraordinary.

Sponsored By: Etowah Valley Historical Society

Date: 8/28/2019

Written By:

Alexis Mazique
Chistopher Mazique

Field Supervisors:

 Joe Head
Sam Graham

Acknowledgments

First and foremost, we are indebted to Mr. Sam Graham who rediscovered Henry Clay Smith. He not only found this forgotten son of Bartow County, he worked tirelessly uncovering facts, public records, countless number of days of searching through leads that led him to even more facts. We can honestly say that without Sam laying the foundation, this paper would not have be possible.

A special word of thanks goes to Mr. Joe Head for allowing and guiding this father-daughter team through the process of writing on Henry Clay Smith. The experience is one that has given us the opportunity to explore the rich history of this area together. We appreciate the opportunity EVHS has provided to discover this fascinating person and Mr. Head’s coaching us on how to compose this project.

We would also like to thank Mrs. Alexis Carter who words of encouragements energized us. Your work in Cartersville does not go unnoticed. Thanks for being a great role model and advisor.

Finally, we dedicate this to Henry Clay Smith for the wonderful life that he lived.

Henry Clay Smith

An Unknown Bartow Child of Slavery Destined to Diplomatic Prominence

Early Life of HCS

Henry Clay Smith (Smith) was born into slavery on January 3, 1856 in Bartow County, Georgia. i He lived with his mother, Mary Johnson a slave. He also lived with his Stepfather and half-siblings. iii His biological father is unknown. During this time, the people would have been dealing with the aftermath of the Civil War. The period for Reconstruction was beginning. It was a hard period for all southerners in this region. It could be said that for the citizens of northwest Georgia, it was a time of poverty and suffering. To be an African American during this time would have been much worse.

It seems that his family was freed when he was around 6 years old most likely due to the Emancipation Proclamation. They moved from Georgia to Chattanooga, Tennessee. At this time, Chattanooga, Tennessee was considered the negro’s Mecca. The family made this move due to opportunities in Chattanooga. He and his family worked on a farm for many years. During this time, Smith had somehow received a basic education.

Education of HCS

Smith had attended Roger Williams University in 1878 at the age of 22. iv It was noted that he participated in college debates and demonstrated his bias for democratic teachings. This was unusual because the democratic parties view towards African-Americans during this time was not favorable. They did not support the expansion of voting rights for African-Americans, and often tried to prevent them from voting.

Figure 1: Marriage License from the state of Tennessee.

He married Lizzie Winfield on January 1, 1884 in Haywood county, Tennessee (Figure 1). v In March of 1884, Smith was the first African-American to pass the civil service examination. ii On July, 22 1884, He received a civil service position as a Clerk, Class 1 in the office of the 6th Auditor of the Treasury department in Washington D.C. It was noted that Smith received this Clerkship without the help of any politician. Smith continued to further his education at Howard University. There he enrolled in a course of Law.

Figure 2: Catalogue of Howard University students from 1887 to 1888.

Smith completed the course of Law at Howard University (Figure 2). ix He was asked by the Auditor to resign his position as clerk but resisted. He felt as if the request was politically motivated and had nothing to do with his work performance.

Smith eventually resigned his position as Clerk on August 1 1889. x Leaving Washington, he moved back to Chattanooga to practice law and he started the newspaper, “The Agitator” releasing the first print on September 25, 1889. xi The following year he moved to Birmingham, Alabama where he continued to practice law and publishing The Agitator. He also got involved in the local politics supporting the Democratic party. He eventually became the president of the Afro-American Democratic League of Alabama. xiv

Political life of HCS

While Smith was in Washington D.C he became active in the Democratic Party. He continued to work for the Democratic party while in Birmingham as the President of the Afro-American Democratic League of Alabama. While in Birmingham, he was instrumental in aiding Congressman Turpin’s campaign. In return for his assistance, Congressman Turpin introduced Smith to President Cleveland. xiv Smith’s sound sense and diplomacy at once attracted the President. On March 7, he wrote a letter to the Assistant Secretary of State requesting to become the Minister of Liberia (Figure 3). xv


Figure 3: Copy of a letter to the Assistant Secretary of State requesting to become The Minister of Liberia. xv

Smith sought the post as Minister of Liberia, but was later re-appointed to United States Consul to Toamasina, Madagascar. xvii He was to replace a Republican Consul, John L. Walter, from the previous administration. Smith has been an unfaltering Democrat for years, and the appointment was a recognition of his services in the democratic ranks. By July 1, 1893, he was then re-assigned to the post of Consul to Santos, Brazil. xviii The reason given for this change is that Smith’s talents would be better used in Brazil. At this time Brazil and the United States were conducting more trade. Smith was to replace Consul Berry who had gone missing for the previous three months amid reports of a yellow fever epidemic in which thousand were reported ill. Between two to three hundred people were dying each day. It was believed that Berry had ether died or fled his post. The U.S. government nor Berry’s family could contact him. Some newspapers reported that nearly all African-American appointments were to places where death awaited the appointee. Despite the risk, Smith took the assignment. He was supported by a large Democratic delegation who were determined to see the appointment go through. He had very strong political ties that supported and respected him.

Smith’s duties were consular as well as judicial. By October 1894 he had completed the “Handbook of Brazil”. He planned to be in the United States the following November to hand it in to a publisher. While serving as Consul to Brazil, Smith was praised for helping Americans conduct business. Brazil was becoming one of the most important commercial countries in South America. There were many people moving into the city of Santos. With lack of housing, opportunity was growing very rapidly in the construction industry. New railroad lines were being constructed. New roads were being built to connect the city to other places that were growing as well. Many American investors were encouraged to invest because of the high return on their money. However, the charge for docking there was extremely high. Nearly all ships were heavily fined for breaking very strict port regulation. It was reported by E.A. Armstrong, Master of the W.R. Hutchings, that all American ships had their fines remitted thanks to Smith. Smith used his skills as a Lawyer and diplomatic tact to have the fines dismissed. The United States government received many such reports praising Smith’s work as the consul to Santos Brazil.

Smith returned back to the United States sometime in November of 1894. While home, he visited many African American churches and venues. In December 1894, he gave a lecture titled “The Negro in Brazil” at the Metropolitan A.M. E. Church in Washington DC. Smith talked of seeing blacks in Brazil who were considered respectable members of society. He heard of one particular man who was born into slavery only to purchase his freedom. The ex-slave then went on to practice law. The Brazilian Bar Association there had placed a painting of him in the halls of the local court house after his death. Smith interacted and met black Captains, Colonels and Generals in the Brazilian Army. He commended the self-reliance of the black people of Brazil. Smith, on a few occasions, spoke along with Fredrick Douglas.

In helping the American investors avoid penalties and fees, Smith paid a high political price. It was not long before he started receiving criticisms. After the criticisms started, he submitted his letter of resignation (Figure 4). xx Smith stated in his resignation that he planned to help another Democrat in a political campaign. His resignation was accepted and Smith returned home.

Figure 4: Henry C. Smith resigns from post of Consul to Santos, Brazil. xx

Personal life of Smith

Smith and his wife had 5 children, 2 boys and 3 girls. During his last year in office, Smith was accused of not properly caring for his family (Figure 5). His wife had applied to associated charities for aid. On October 30, 1897 the courts removed the 4 children, the oldest had been removed a few days before, and sent them to live with his wife’s family in Brownsville, Tennessee. After his wife left him, Smith relocated to New York. The judge stated to the Washington Bee that it is a Godsend that we have such an institution to take care of the children. It was a sad scene that was keenly felt by him.

Figure 5: Henry C. Smith: Sad Scene in Court. xxvii

Religious life of Smith

Smith became a Baptist Minister and was very active with the concerns of the African-American community. He worked with other religious and civil leaders to promote freedom and equality. Many of his lectures were in Churches involving the development of the Black man as well as equality and the race problem. From the beginning Smith realized that the land in which they lived was controlled by the white race. He also believed that the black man would be respected and eventually treated as equal by demonstrating his hard work and intellect. The church was a place where the black community could come together in a welcoming environment to improve the lives of many African-Americans.

He soon helped to establish “The National Mutual and Industrial Order”. xxi The purpose of this educational organization was to provide job skills to African-Americans who wanted employment opportunities. During this time many African-Americans were beginning to migrate to the north in search of employment and better treatment by society. Training was provided in the area of Domestic help, Butlers, Chauffer and other careers. Offices were established through-out the northeastern and southeastern states.

Smith also helped found “The New York State Association of Colored Voters” (NYSACV). xxii This organization held meetings that were closed to the public. The politicians became uneasy by this idea and began to express concerns. The NYSACV wanted to collect the black vote and support the political party that addressed most of the black community’s concerns. This was the start of a shift in Smith’s thinking and acting. In the past he had only supported the Democratic party. In doing so, he was given support in return. Now he was promoting that both parties should work to get the black vote. The NYSACV insisted on conducting the meeting behind closed doors to allow the participants the opportunity to freely express their views and concerns. Smith toured the state and organized more than forty-five cities and towns. This took him through twenty-five counties. He was targeting areas where there were large numbers of black voters. He had to now work with people who were strictly Republicans supporters. He had to convince the voters to be willing to support the Democratic party if they were willing to agree to the NYSACV’s proposal. They were able to deliver over 20,000 votes for that local election. At this time, there existed other political organizations that worked with ether the Democratic or the Republican parties. The New York State Association of Colored Voters said that they would no longer consistently support only one party.

The other important issue that NYSACV addressed was the education of black voters. The idea was to educate the community on the value of wealth. NYSACV believed that by placing importance on maximizing the wealth in the community will lead to a new found self-respect and result in being respected by other races. The condition of the whole community is more important than the poor people who were looking to sell their vote for financial profit. The condition of the whole community was more important than any wealthy black person who despised the poor. There was also lots of emphasis placed on respecting the black woman in particular. It was clear that NYSACV were not against any political party. The philosophy was intended to improve the lives of all in the black community by pooling together the voting power. It was hoped that the actions of NYSACV would result in equality in the northern states as well as southern states.

Smith became president of the Staten Island Domestic Training School. xxiii The school offered a six-month training program to prepare black men and women with the skills needed to work after migrating to the north. It was meant to address the problems that many African-Americans faced after migrating to the north only to find it difficult to find gainful employment. The school had multiple campuses in the north and the south. Some of the topics covered in the program included: How to select good meats, fruits and vegetables, basic arithmetic, cooking, how to prepare drinks, house repair, cleaning, hygiene, reading, spelling, writing and black history in America. Smith used his alliance with both African-Americans and whites to solicit financial assistance in the form of investments in the school. He skillfully explained how investing in the school would benefit all members of society. He readily worked with both black and white churches to ask that collections be taken up to support this cause. The funds were used to establish buildings, dormitories and schoolrooms.

Late in 1902, Smith traveled to Long Branch, New Jersey where he acted as a delegate to the “Afro-American Baptist Association” xxviii. Three days later, he was having supper with friends at a boarding house when he experienced chest pains and excused himself. He was later found dead in the back yard of the boarding house. The cause of death was due to an affection of the heart. His funeral was held at the Second Baptist Church in Eatonton New Jersey. He was remembered as a scholar of remarkable intellectual ability, being at one time consul to Brazil under former President Grover Cleveland. He was the master of several languages. He was laid to rest in White Ridge cemetery.

The contributions of Smith

With the passing of to the Emancipation Proclamation, many African-Americans began to discuss the best path forward. Two views rose to the top of the discussion. The views of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois were very popular. Booker T. Washington believed that if the black people would demonstrate their excellence through work and character, then the white man would accept them. On the other hand. W.E.B. Dubois believed that African-Americans should protest for equal rights. This was a huge debate between peace and protest.

Early in Smith’s life, he seemed to practice the philosophy of Booker T. Washington. This was demonstrated in his decision to join the Democratic party. He formed political alliances with powerful whites. This may have enabled him to solicit the backing and support needed to allow him to be appointed to public office. He also founded “The Christian National Mutual and Industrial Order.” The purpose of this organization was to provide training to all black people who wanted various jobs in domestic or professional positions.

Later in Smith’s life he seemed to practice the philosophy of W.E.B. Dubois. This was demonstrated by his insistence that political parties work to get the black vote. He also helped form a secret political society that discussed and proposed topics that should be addressed before the black vote would go to them. The formation of this secret society made many whites very nervous. He also was the Director of the New York State Association of Colored Voters.

The New York Times stated, “he had succeeded, after making a tour of the state, in organizing in more than forty-five cities and towns covering twenty-five counties, where there are colored voters.” xxii His association is like the Italian, German, and Irish associations. “Our meetings are all secret, because we discuss and talk over matters that could not very easily be discussed in public. We have not yet determined what party we will support. That will be for the convention to determine.”

Many politicians were suspicious of the association due to the secret meetings and the constant change of party support. When Smith started the organization, he pointed out that the organization had no grievances against any political party. ”If this is a Democratic platform, “said Mr. Smith, “make the most of it. If it is Republican, make the most of it.” xxiv He believed that if it was not for the laws of oppression that there would not be growth where there once was idleness and poverty. “The salvation of the black man is in his own hands.” xxiiv Smith states.

Bibliography

i           NARA Record Group 59, Box 80, letter dated March 7, 1893, HCS to President Grover Cleveland.

ii          The Tennessean (Nashville, Tennessee) July 29, 1884, Newspapers.com. Web.

iii         Ancestry.com. 1870 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA

iv         The Tennessean (Nashville, Tennessee) July 29, 1884, Newspapers.com. Web.

v          Marriage record, State of Tennessee, Haywood County, January 1, 1884, Ancestry.com. Web.

vi         Pittsburg Dispatch (Pittsburg, Pennsylvania) July 24, 1889, Chroniclingamerica.loc.gov. Web.

vii         Ibid.

viii        Chattanooga Daily Commercial August 7, 1885, Chattanooga Newspapers, chattanooga.advantage-preservation.com. Web.

ix          Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Howard University from March, 1887 to March, 1888,    Howard University Catalogs. Web.

x          Pittsburg Dispatch (Pittsburg, Pennsylvania) July 24, 1889, ChroniclingAmerica.loc.gov. Web.

xi          Jacksonville Republican (Jacksonville, Alabama) October 12, 1889, Newspapers.com. Web.

xii         Montgomery Advertiser January 13, 1893. Newspapers.com. Web.

xiii        Huntsville Weekly Democrat (Huntsville, Alabama) August 20, 1890. Newspapers.com. Web.

xiv        The Montgomery Advertiser January 13, 1893. Newspaper.com. Web.

xv         NARA Record Group 59, box 80, letter dated March 7, 1893, HCS to President Grover Cleveland.

xvi        The Brewton Leader (Brewton, Alabama) April 4, 1893. Newspapers.com. Web.

xvii       NARA Record Group 59, Box 28, Card Record of Appointments.

xviii      NARA Record Group 59, Box 28, Card Record of Appointments.

xix        Alabama Beacon (Greensboro Alabama) June 28, 1893. Newspapers.com. Web.

xx         Jersey City News October 12, 1896. Genealogybank. Web.

xxi        Richmond Planet (Richmond, Virginia) August 28 1897. Virginiachronicle.com. Web.

xxii       New York Times, July 25, 1900. Newspapers.com. Web.

xxiii      The American Kitchen Magazine April-September, 1902. Google Books. Web.

xxiv      Denver Rocky Mountain News, March 5 1902. ChroniclingAmerica.loc.gov. Web.

xxv       Long Branch Record (Long Branch, New Jersey) October 31, 1902. Newspapers.com. Web

xxvi      Long Branch Record (Long Branch, New Jersey) November 7, 1902. Newspapers.com. Web.

xxvii     The Washington Bee (Washington DC) October 30 1897. Newspapers.com. Web.

xxviii     Long Branch Record (Long Branch, New Jersey) November 7, 1902. Newspapers.com. Web

xxiv      The Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York) August 8, 1900. Newspapers.com. Web

xxiiv     The Standard Union (Brooklyn, New York) August 8, 1900. Newspapers.com. Web

      

TINSLEY PARK                                             
Cartersville’s First Park and Golf Course                          

                                                                                                         The following article was published in The Tribune-News, June 27, 1929, under the title “Local Golf Course Has Important and Noticeable Niche in Sportdom”. As wheels of progress turned their cycles towards greater industry and business for Cartersville and Bartow County, they made an extra revelation in order that sports and recreation might be included in the assets of which this section is justly proud. Bitten by the “golf bug” that seems to have been rampant in the nations a few years ago, a number of Cartersville enthusiasts in 1925 combined to form the Cartersville Golf Club which started off with 20 charter members. Since established the club has risen to be one of the most popular organizations in the vicinity and now ranks on par with all other civic groups of the community. In 1925 there was no course in “Cartersville, but the club members, determined to have one, secured the loan of propriety from the city and developed it. Nine holes were completed that year, but the roughs and greens were almost inseparable and alike. However, Rome was not built in a day and neither was a golf course. As time passed, the members sought to improve the course that had been so ably designed by H. R. Womelsdorf. No change has been made in his plan, but from time to time the course has been so improved that it has been claimed by many to be one of the best in North Georgia. Fuzzy Woodruff, sports writer for the Atlanta Journal, after a pleasant round in which he swung not so many times, pronounced his opinion that the course was splendid.

                                                                                                                                           Today [1929] the nine hole course covers 30 acres and has a par of 34, which has been broken several times, notably by L. O. Bishop, the club champ and A. G. White, Jr., both of whom have journeyed around in 32. The club now has 60 members. It is distinctive that the local course has been honored with three holes in one all of which to the layman is nothing but so much Chinese. But to the follower of the little white sphere, it is but his highest ambition and to the club it’s a thing that comes but once in a lifetime and to the skilled wearer of the knickers and sox it’s nothing more than a pleasant mishap caused by the hand of kind fate. J. H. Calhoun was first president of the club. He was followed by O. T. Peeples and W. J. Weinman who now heads the organization. T. J. Champion is a director and one of the outstanding members, having been partly responsible for the great progress made. END of TRIBUNE-NEWS ARTICLE.

                                                                                                                                                                                Now in the current year of 2019 more to this story is known and able to be shared. Across Tennessee Street, a house which is now the law firm of Archer & Lovell, overlooked the golf course and was owned by Mr. and Mrs. George Washington Brooke. Mrs. Brooke was the former Emily Jones, sister of Robert Purmedus Jones, father of Robert Tyre “Bobby” Jones, the most famous golfer of his time. Bobby visited his aunt on occasion, however never found time to play the Cartersville course. He did encourage his aunt to learn the game and even left a complete set of his old clubs for her use, however she never took up the game. A group of local golfers including Milton Fleetwood, publisher of the local paper, and Mr. and Mrs. Brooke attended an exhibition round of golf played by Bobby Jones in Canton. They hoped he would come to Cartersville and do the same, however his time did not allow it. The 1925 Cartersville Course was built on land occupied by the newly formed Bartow County Fair Association in 1914 which was south of Cartersville, bordered by South Erwin Street to the west, Cook Street to the north, Tennessee Street and the Railroad to the east and Old Mill Road to the south. The Fair had previously been located since 1869 on 40 acres owned by the City of Cartersville north of town along the west side of Cassville Road from the Railroad to Pettit’s Creek (site now occupied by Self Recycling). The Bartow County Fair moved to its new and current home in Cartersville during the fall of 1948 surrounding the newly erected American Legion House and Memorial facing Martin Luther King Drive, formerly Moon Street. Originally the Legion used the site occupied now by the Market Square Shopping Center (Hobby Lobby and Big Lots) for the Fairgrounds up until 1972. Since that development, the Fair uses their remaining grounds for the annual Fair.

                                                                                                                           Cartersville High football established in 1909 played at first on Jones Field to the west side of the old High School (formerly Sam Jones Female College fronting Cherokee Avenue/Field now paved over). Play was moved to the Fairgrounds in 1914, though no permanent stadium was ever built as the site was of multi-purpose use. The Cartersville City Council did approve seating for 500 in 1948 after the announcement of the Fair’s move, however several citizens of the time did not remember any permanent seating. Cartersville High football moved to its current home on East Church Street in 1955, bordering the new high school whose doors opened in 1952. The new stadium was named for Andy Weinman, former Cartersville coach and one of its largest supporters.

 

The Fairgrounds became Cartersville’s Municipal Park in 1920, named for T. W. Tinsley, Fair Association President who became Mayor two years later. A swimming pool followed in 1923 and the golf course in 1925. A baseball field and tennis courts were added in time. Certain citizens worked with The City of Cartersville and Chamber to expand its industrial base around 1950 and the old Fair Grounds were selected as a future industrial park. The Fair was now gone and the Golf Course was behind the times with its design and sand greens. Its tees & greens were arranged around the parks perimeter with fairways crossing in the middle which created a pedestrian obstacle especially when other activities were taking place. For those who are uneducated on the subject of sand greens, golfers putt on sand rather than grass. These were quite common in the old days as modern golf course science was in its infancy. The sand was oiled to provide a consistent putting service and to prevent weeds and erosion, however play required the use of a strait edged rake to provide a smooth surface on which to putt. The golf course, pool and tennis courts by most accounts were abandoned when the land was offered for development. Golfers in particular began playing in other surrounding communities such as Rome, Rockmart and Cave Springs. Football continued up to 1955. Tennis courts, pool and the baseball field were later moved to the land surrounding the new Cartersville High School. With the development of Dellinger Park in 1976, a new home was found for the tennis courts and pool and since that time Cartersville has steadily moved forward with recreational facilities in numerous locations to meet the needs of a growing population. The old baseball field at the high school was moved to the sports complex on Sugar Valley Road not to many years ago. The City’s industrial plan paid off in 1954 with the commitment of Cartersville Undergarment as its first industry in the new industrial park. Golf did return to Cartersville in 1954 with the founding of the Cartersville Country Club. Next was Green Valley Greens, a privately owned public play course in 1969. Last was the City owned Golf Course “Royal Oaks” in 1971 which is now known as Woodland Hills and privately owned for use by both members and the public. Tinsley Park and the old Fairgrounds are now just a memory which is fading away with time, however it once brought so much joy to a growing community.

Compiled by Guy Parmenter 

Bibliography                                                           

Cartersville Centennial 1872-1972 Publication                                                                                                           Cartersville Public Schools Centennial 1888-1988 Publication                                                                       

Interview with Dave Tillman featured on Perspective with Hershel Wisebram                                                      

Notes by Alan Riley on the History of the Cartersville Country Club                

Personal Conversations with Hal Cook and Mike Cook                                                                                           

The Weekly Tribune, March 18,

1948                                                                                                                            
The Tribune-News, June 27, 1929                                                                               Bartow Tribune, October 8,1914                                                                                

Weekly Tribune News, April 22, 1948                

Pasturegolf.com

 

                                                                          

Entrance to Kingston Saltpeter Cave

SILENT VOICES FROM SALTPETER CAVE

Joel M. Sneed

Entrance to Kingston Saltpeter Cave

Entrance to Kingston Saltpeter Cave (Linda Pye photo)

 

As a part of our study of Kingston Saltpeter Cave in the 1980s, inscriptions were recorded from the walls of the cave, and these – nearly 500 names, some with dates and other information – were included as an Appendix in my 2007 book, Bartow County Caves: History Underground in North Georgia. These names, and the record of a visit to the cave by people over a period of 200 years, had been written with charcoal or scratched into the walls throughout the cave. Although we had systematically recorded these inscriptions so that none would be missed, we found a few years ago that we had, indeed, overlooked an entire wall of writing.

How this was brought to our attention was by Mrs. Joan Creviston having found online a video of the cave that had been made by Kevin and Shannon Glenn, members of the KSC Committee of the National Speleological Society. The video had panned across a wall where the name “Jodie Hill 1935” was clearly shown. Mr. Hill was an uncle of Joan’s and she wanted to visit the cave to see the inscription. Joan and her husband then accompanied me to the cave, where we found that wall. A follow-up trip was made, which included Joe Head, also a nephew of Mr. Hill. Following that trip Joe purchased a copy of the book, and upon inspection of the Appendix listing names from the cave, found that the inscription of Jodie Hill was not shown and he informed me of such. I later recorded all of the names from that wall, and they are published herewith.

In addition to those inscriptions, I have now recorded several that were not on the original survey because they were covered over by soot and not visible. These are found on the ceiling of a passage that is now about eight feet high, but at the time they were written, prior to the intensive excavation for nitrates during the 1860s, the passage was only a few feet in height. To find and record these I carried into the cave a short stepladder, and, protected by goggles and mask, I carefully brushed away the soot, exposing pre-Civil War inscriptions. Hereby was discovered the oldest inscription in the cave, that of a John W. Bank, dated 1802.

It is hoped that by publishing these names someone will recognize a name that is familiar to them, perhaps a relative or a person with whom they are otherwise familiar, and report it to this writer. Likewise with names previously published in the Bartow caves book. Joe Head has set a good example by sending me the following information about his uncle whose name is on the wall recently recorded:

                                       Jodie L. Hill (Nov. 5, 1919 – Feb. 20, 2016)

Jodie was a native of Bartow County and the son of William and Ludie Hill. He was a veteran of WWII having stormed the beaches at Normandy France where he received the Purple Heart. Following the war Jodie became an insurance executive becoming vice president of the Life and Casualty Insurance Company in Nashville TN. While in Nashville, Jodie met many country singers and performed as a back-up fiddler for the Grand Ole Opry at the Ryman Auditorium. He was married three times and had two children, Jodilynn and Vickie, by his second wife Myra Spivy Hill. Jodie was an entrepreneur and a historian. In the mid 1990s, he purchased and restored the Corra Harris property in Rydal, Georgia known as “In the Valley” and later donated it to Kennesaw State University. Jodie received the Life Time Achievement Award from the Etowah Valley Historical Society in 2009.

Cave wall with the Jodie Hill inscription (Joan Creviston photo)

In my study of caves in Bartow County, and learning of the involvement of Corra Harris in the protection of early Native Artifacts from Bradford Cave, I sought out Mr. Hill since he at that time was the owner of the property that Mrs. Harris had owned, and he was arguably the person most familiar with that lady. Mr. Hill graciously spent an afternoon with me, telling me about Mrs. Harris and showing me around the property.

KINGSTON SALTPETER CAVE INSCRIPTIONS 2019 Newly-Discovered Names Not Included In Original 2007 Transcription

LAST NAME FIRST NAME/INITIAL DATE COMMENTS

WEST WALL OUTSIDE “DOOR TO THE PLEISTOCENE”

Bagwell H E    
Bailey R D    
Boyle M H   Dec 9 (section of small rock ledge broken off) w/ Lakes
Carkidge (?) W H    
Choate Zim 1954 Group a
Clark John 1935 May 12 Alto, Ga
Cobb Disha (?) 1934 Crossville, Ala w/ V Z Cobb
Cobb V Z 1934 Crossville, Ala w/ Disha Cobb
Colbert William 1908 Dec 13 Age 21 w/ Martin, Gaines, Reg…
Culverhouse Walter 1939 Mar 21 Forsyth, Ga
Earnest Eva    
Fishback J F 1939 2-Apr
Gaines G Hollie    
Gaines Hollie 1908 Dec 13 Sweet 16 Kingston, Ga w/ Martin, Reg…, Colbert
Gilbreath J E 1908 11-Jul
H Clyde    
Hanie Bob 1955 with Jim Meyer
Hill Jodie 1935  
Jakes Hollis A 1882  
Jefferson T A    
Jefferson T A 1908 July – with W (?) Petty
King… Ralph   Dec 11 year not legible
Lakes C R   Dec 9 (section of small rock ledge broken off) w/ Boyle
Laudermilk Ruth   Group a (assume 1954)
Martin Fannie Lee    
Martin Fannie Lee 1908 Dec 13 Valdosta Age 17 w/ Gaines, Reg…, Colbert
Meyer Jim 1955 with Bob Hanie
Milner Hal    
Neville H J   Aug 16 New Orleans
Olivera Loyd 1934 Dec 11 Crossville, Ala
Petty Francis 1919  
Petty W (?) 1908 July – with T A Jefferson
Pruitt D.E.    
Pruitt Eckert Bailey    
Reg… M J 1908 Dec 13 Age 42 w/ Martin, Gaines, Colbert
Richmond Gus 1933 with Kenneth Richmond
Richmond Kenneth 1933 with Gus Richmond
Rollons (?) J D   Group a (assume 1954)
Rouse R H 1910 Aug 21 Gulfport
Ruff Lumpkin   Group a (assume 1954)
Sanford Rena   Group a (assume 1954)
Shifflet R L    
Soulis Arthur 1939 includes flag with CHS on it
Soulis Arthur 1939  
Spradley C E 1929  
Spratit H G    
St… M D 1926 Jun 22 Fitzgerald, Ga
Str…(?) M D    
Vaughan Homer 1929 April (date obscured)
Weave C?H?J   Group a (assume 1954)
Wheat F   Kingston
White A J   with Arthur White and Br.. White
White Br..(?)   with A J White and Arthur White
White Arthur   with A J White and Br.. White
Wofford      

CEILING IN WEST END OF “BLAIR’S SALTPETER CORRIDOR”

W M B 1812  
Cranreh (?) A C    
Wright B H(or W)   possibly Bright
Bank John W 1802 on top of this is a large “N” w/ 1841
Be_ords (?) JoTon (?) H 1811  
Burch Mollie G   could be Bunch
Lyman   1833 2 other lines of small cursive writing
Chunn W A   could be Chann
Brown T E 1847  
    1855 no name
    1856 no name

This research has been compiled to preserve the list of pioneers and early visitors who left an inscription of their visit to the cave before they are lost to natural deterioration or vandalism. It is very likely that many of these people may have explored and toiled in the cave or once enjoyed the legendary dances that were once held in the large chamber in the 1930s. Some of the names represent historic figures and community leaders who ventured in to one of Bartow’s most iconic natural features.

For those who do not have the Bartow Caves book, the following is the list that appears in the book as Appendix 1:

LAST FIRST/
INITIAL
DATE COMMENTS
? Jerry 1952 “Lindsay” etched; possibly last name
? Roberta    
? ? 1856 Name is illegible
? ? 1913 Illegible due to spray paint
? Charles    
? Charlene 1938  
? Myrt   Reads “Myrt the Flirt”
? Jewel 1845 Etched, covered with soot
? EPL 1895 Yellow paint over some signatures at this point
? J.B. 1895  
? H F Y   “Y” is backwards. At 5′ level many signatures not readable
? R.G. 1913  
? Sallie   with other, illegible, names
? Bessie   with Alexander and Hutson
? Patty 1896 with 9 other 1896 names (grp 36)
? Burton 1896 with 9 other 1896 names (grp 36)
? Miss Cora    
? Miss J    
? Bette    
? Margie 1879 7/27/1879; w/ Bessie Crawford and Marie Headen
? Joseph 1894 ?/21/1894; w/ Milams, Sneed and Hays
?F? Floyd 1852  
?man Shirley 1941 Rome, Ga.;9/28/1941; w/ 3 others same date
A B 1904 8/24/1904 w/ TD
A. F. 1967 Etched
Adair Charles D. 1834 11/1834; written twice (etched)
Adams O?    
Akin Mr. D 1894 9/7/1894 with 6 other names
Alexander Kate   appears very old
Alexander Kate   with Bessie(?) and Hutson
Alford Homer 1938 2/6/1938
Archer Russell 1915 May be associated with G.G.M.
Atwood Sam T    
Atwood Sam T   written twice
Ayers Lester 1931  
B Allen    
B Harry 1901 8/2/1901
B Ellen    
B S A 1899 Kingston, Ga., Age 72
B. E.M. 1929 Could be E.A.B.
B. B.H. 1967 Etched
B? Cranson   above Ms. Munford w. 4 others illegible
Barkin Jeff    
Barrett Joe 1877 w/ F.C. McDaniel
Barton J A 1895 1/11/1895; w/ Neal Young
Bates D F   776 Beardsley St., Akron, Ohio
Be ? (Beam?) Tom    
Beale R A   w/ J M Carver
Benton H.    
Benton ? Henry   written in script; probably same as H. Benton written next to it
Black Mildred 1941  
Blanton Pet? 1899 6/16/1899
Boy Scouts of Amer.   1915 7/17/1915; Calhoun, Ga.
Boyless (?) E.   Same style as Johnson, H.F.
Bradley ? 1923  
Bradley      
Bradley Amoret?   reads “Amoret (?) Grant Bradley, Wilmington, NC”
Brannen K 1896 with 9 other 1896 names (grp 36)
Brating(?) Hattie    
Brennan? Wm. C 1844 12/28/1844
Bridge J L   w/ J T Bridge
Bridge J T   19??/4/?; w/ J L Bridge
Brown D.W. 1938 Rome,
Brown D.W. 1938  
Brown D W 1938 Rome
Brown Harry 1941  
Brown Lessie B    
Bryson J.J. 1938 12/??/1938; below this is the date Oct.13, 40
Bryson Rebecca 1938  
Bryson ? 1938 Date could read 1939
BSA   1919  
Bu? Mrs. C A   to right is “N 1841” etched
Bunch Eddie 1962 8/20/1962
Burdette Jas M 1914 w/ Word (Ward)
Burton Cicero   1892 near this
Butler Jim   7/24/1?15
Campbell Dawson 1896  
Campbell Pearce   Stone Mountain
Carter J D 1917 ?/6/1917
Carver J M   w/ R A Beale
Chaney ? 1938  
Chapin Judd    
Chapman A 1838 5/18/1838; writing in ochre
Choate Hal    
Clark John 1935 5/12/1935
Clay Will 1899 5/1899
Clover? Miss O 1894 9/7/1894 with 6 other names
Cobb V.J.   Crossville, Ala.
Cobb J.S. 1899 5/17/1899
Cobb V.J.   Crossville, Ala.
Cobb R C    
Cochran     Kingston, GA
Colbert J S    
Colbert J S 1894 5/1894; w/ Patterson, Godfrey and Frank
Collin? J H M    
Collins Sophie    
Collins C    
Collins James ?    
Conley ?   2/18/????
Conley Ethel   Cartersville, Ga.
Cook Bill   written twice
Copeland J C   etched
Cornell   1896 with 9 other 1896 names (grp 36)
Cothman Eduth 1938 1/2/1938
Crain? Nellie    
Cranford LouAnn 1896 Could be Crawford
Cranston   1896 with 9 other 1896 names (grp 36)
Cranton(?) Addie    
Crawford Patty    
Crawford Jack    
Crawford J B 1896 with 9 other 1896 names (grp 36) could be Cranford
Crawford   1896 with 9 other 1896 names (grp 36) could be Cranford
Crawford Bessie 1911 7/27/1911; Cassville, Ga.
Crawford Bessie 1879 7/27/1879; w/ Marie Headen and Margie ?
Crosby Wm K H   2/18/????
Crow W.W.    
Crowe Vera 1913  
Crowe Vera 1933 7/19/1933; w/ R E Hamby
Culverhouse Walter 1939 3/21/1939
Currier J M 1875 ?/12/1875
D T 1904 8/24/1904 w/ BA
D. Lucille 1904 8/13/1904
Dallis G D 1877 etched
Davidson J P 1899 8/5/1899; w/ M.H. Stiles
Davies H 1956 Atlanta
Dear M    
Dearing H   18??; etched Roman style
Dickson W J 1915 4/3/1915; Fairmont, Ga. Rte 3; w/ Edwards and Livingston
Dodd Mattie 1895  
Doster Larry   19??
Doster Larry 1965  
Dun? J H    
E C F 1918 large block letters
Edwards Chester? 1915 4/3/1915; w/ Dickson and Livingston
Ely? J W   etched
Evans Emma 1928 12/5/1928
Evans Emma 1928 12/5/1928; on formation!
Fitzsimmons Mrs. J.B.    
Floyd M.N. 1876  
Floyd Bobby 1954 1954-1955
Foster B G 1899 5/1899
Frank H F 1894 5/1894; w/ Patterson, Colbert and Godfrey
Freeman J W 1843 etched printing
Frost Fritz   Written in pencil
G B T 1889  
Gaines     12/13/??08
Gains? T W 1899 5/1899
Gall Bobby 1955  
Gann K.C. 1938  
Gann R.C.    
Gardrough? A B 1814  
Garner M.M.    
Garwood W J    
Gavins?   1876  
Gilbert Sam L. 1902  
Gilbert H A 1935 CCC
Gilliam H B 1900 11/7/1900; may be w/ Jos. Emory Hargis
Gilreath Hugh    
Gilreath Hugh 1844 w/ Pittard, Smith and Moncrief
Godfrey F.B. 1899 5/17/1899
Godfrey F B    
Godfrey F B 1894 5/1894; w/ Patterson, Colbert and Frank
Goulding C.H. 1858  
Goulding J C 1845 Columbus, Ga.
Goulding C H 1858 w/ J T Groves and A C Willy
Grant Amoreh   Wilmington, N.C.
Greene Arthur 1938 Arthur from Plainsville, Ga.
Greene Arthur 1938 Plainsville, Ga.
Griffin E 1878  
Griffin R E 1896 8/19/1896; w/ Ware RCO and CF
Gris Doug    
Grogan J.W.    
Gros… Hugh    
Groves R C 1913 Date could be 1813
Groves J.T. 1858  
Groves? J T 1858 w/ C H Goullding and A C Willy
Guthrie Walter    
H Madge    
H R   ??40; scratched
H. C.   Written in charcoal pencil
Hagin ? 1901  
Hall Russell 1938 2/??/1938
Hall John D. 1876 8/2?/1876
Hamby R E 1933 7/19/1933; w/ Vera Crowe
Harbin Odessa   Printed and etched
Hardin J F 1861 etched, Roman style
Hargin R O   possibly Hargis
Hargis Jos. Emory 1900 11/7/1900
Hargis ? 1899 8/4/1899
Hargis Emory 1899 8/4/1899
Hargrove W    
Harris Ella   8/4/18??
Harris? T W    
Harry W W    
Hawkin Billy 1938  
Hawkins Billy    
Hawkins Billy 1935 w/ Fred Mills
Hayes Ela 1938  
Haynes ?    
Hays? Effie  1894 ?/21/1894; w/ Milams and Sneed
Headden J. 1857 9/5/1857; Etched, printed in Roman style
Headden     w/ Patton
Headden     w/ Patton
Headdin ? G H 1913 Date could be 1813
Headdon G H 1903  
Headen Marie 1879 7/27/1879; w/ Bessie Crawford and Margie ?
Henderson Marvin    
Henley Hilda    
Herrington Miss Callie   w/ Mary and Miss Pearl Rollins
Ho? Fannie Lee    
Hogan J.C. 1938  
Holmes Lewis 1962 8/24/1962
Hood F H    
Howell James 1915 3/31/1915
Howell H C   w/ M L Moss 1934
Howren Johnny 1941 8/10/1941
Hudson H A   on Jug formation
Huger L.P. 1863 etched
Huger L P    
Hugh J.    
Hutson Thorn   with Bessie(?) and Alexander
Hyde ? John   w/ Ms. Mary Ma?
Ingram Billy 1957 12/28/1957; w/ J? Ingram
Ingram J? 1957 12/28/1957; w/ Billy Ingram
Jack? J B   could be associated with Billy Hawkins, 1935
James Bill 1965 8/9/1965; along w/ Jimmy ’56
Johnson Jacob 1805 3/16/1805; old script. Group w/ McCarthy(?) and Morgan
Johnson ? 1845 Etched, covered with soot
Johnson R.H. 1896  
Johnson J C    
Johnson H.F.    
Johnson H.F. 1895 5/29/1895
Johnson H.F.   Town…LaGrange, Ga.
Johnson L 1894 11/10/1894
Johnson     Kingston
Johnson Millie   Kingston
Jolley Estelle    
Jolley E.C.    
Jolley E C    
Jones W.R.   Etched old style printing
Jones A.S.   ??04/05/15 etched
Jones Mike 1968  
Jones G L   4/14/??18; w/ H. Thompson
Jones Sallie   old looking; etched
Jones Marie 1941 Rome, Ga.;9/28/1941; w/ 3 others same date
Jordan Dixie/Elmer    
Jordan Josephine    
K L B      
Kramer S R    
Kubback? W.W. 1863 12/7/1863
Lambert, Jr. E C 1922 11/25/1922
Langford J R 1913 “______, Ga”
Lawson ? 1901  
Leake A E 1855 Marietta, Ga.
Leffell(?) Stewart M   From Xenia, Ohio
Lewis J W   Atlanta, Ga.
Linderson Betty 1941 8/10/1941 reads “plus Johnny Howren”
Lit? B 1896 with 9 other 1896 names (grp 36)
Litchfield L.C.    
Livingston J T 1915 4/3/1915; w/ Dickson and Edwards
Lloyd Ed 1941 Rome, Ga.;9/28/1941; w/ 3 others same date
Lockridge Tom 1894 9/2/1894; has “jr.” after last name
Lockridge Doug   may be with Tom Lockridge
Lockridge Charlie    
Lovejoy Keith    
Lovell John 1941 Rome, Ga.;9/28/1941; w/ 3 others same date
M W 1841  
M. G.G. 1915 Also initials PHD, etched
Ma? Ms. Mary   w/ John Hydes
March W A    
March W A   Dallas, Tx.
Marshall   1872 Columbia, S.C. (under J.W. Lewis)
Martin Fannie Lee   12/13/??08
May Florence    
McCarthy ? ? F. 1805 3/16/1805; old script. Group w/ Johnson and Morgan
McDaniel F C 1877 w/ Joe Barrett
McDowell     183?; beautifully etched; last digit obliterated by MDG
Milam Henry 1894 ?/21/1894; w/ Sneed and Hays
Milam Louise 1894 ?/21/1894; w/ Sneed and Hays
Milholland Meryl 1901 5/22/1901; Cassville, Ga.; w/ Thompson
Mill? Fred    
Millen Sallie 1855 7/20/1855; possible Milam
Miller   1840 6/26/1840
Miller Julia    
Mills Wm E 1845 6/26/1845; Miller printed below
Mills Fred 1935 w/ Billy Hawkins
Milner Mr. W 1894 9/7/1894 with 6 other names
Milner Mr. T 1894 9/7/1894 with 6 other names
Monahan ? Rosaray ?    
Moncrief O H?    
Moncrief O R 1844 w/ Pittard, Gilreath and Smith
Morgan   1805 3/16/1805; old script. Group w/ Johnson and McCarthy (?)
Moss M L 1934 w/ H C Howell
Mowry Dan   1954-55; also 56-57
Mullenix Jarrett?   Euharlee; w/ John Mullenix and Hugh Roberts
Mullenix John   w/ Jarrett Mullenix and Hugh Roberts
Mullinix Darrell    
Mullinix John    
Munford Mary 1894 with Milner
Munford Miss L 1894 9/7/1894 with 6 other names
Munford Mary 1879 8/23/1879
Nealon? M.   9/4/??64
Nelson Vance    
Nesbitt Miss ?    
Nix Claudette 1938  
Norris Mr. J 1894 9/7/1894 with 6 other names
Pa a? Paul    
Parker Helen    
Parkerson Jerry 1944 1/28/1944
Patterson R.W. 1899 5/17/1899
Patterson R W    
Patterson R W 1894 5/1894; w/ Colbert, Godfrey and Frank
Patton S. 1857 9/5/1857; Etched, printed in Roman style
Patton     w/ Headden
Patton     w/ Headden
Payne Ray 1952 10/16/1952
Payne Lester 1923 1/28/1923
Phitzer ? E.A. 1830  
Picketts Pvt. 1863 Also has CSA; charcoal and scratch
Pittard Emily    
Pittard Emily 1844 w/ Gilreath, Smith and Moncrief
Pratt Doug 1974 11/11/1974; w/ Larry Pratt (brother)
Pratt Larry 1974 11/11/1974; w/ Doug Pratt (brother)
R E C      
R E G      
R S      
Rainwater     18?4/08
Reese Tom    
Reynolds Mah    
Reynolds M a hall    
Rhodes R V 1903 Address of “128 _____”. Second line reads “_____ Ga.”
Robbins Miss Johnnie    
Robert Hugh    
Robertson Elizabeth 1836 8/18/1836 Macon
Robertson Hugh?   w/ Jarrett and John Mullenix
Rod? Bessie 1896 with 9 other 1896 names (grp 36)
Rollins Baxter    
Rollins Miss Pearl   w/ Mary and Miss Callie Herrington
Rollins Mary   w/ Miss Callie Herrington and Miss Pearl Rollins
Rowan E C    
Rutherford C.T.   may be G.T.
Rutherson? C.T.    
S Frank    
S A M      
S P     Below Jim Butler in script printing
S. Sam T    
Scha? L 1892  
Schaffer F C    
Schultz Lila 1898 7/1898
Seeley Sue 1938  
Serr? T S    
Shaw? Jimmy    
Sheffield C R 1902 8/24/1902 Seney, Ga.
Sheppard S.S.   2/19/????
Showalsh? Alma 1923  
Shulty? Lula   could be Lulu; 8/23/18?9
Slater J H   appears very old
Smith Melissa 1844 “M.Melissa Smith Was Born Jan. 15, 1827” Written below is “Aug,1844”
Smith Carrie 1896 8/11/1896
Smith Mamie 1896 8/11/1896
Smith Carrie 1896 with 9 other 1896 names (grp 36)
Smith   1876  
Smith Tom 1900 11/25/1900
Smith Frank 1900 11/25/1900
Smith Mamie    
Smith Carrie 1896 8/17/1896
Smith Carrie 1896 8/11/1896; Cassville
Smith Mamie 1844 w/ Gilreath, Pittard and Moncrief
Smith Florence    
Sneed Etta 1894 ?/21/1894; w/ Milams and Hays
Soemet? D?   Reads “__ D. Soemet” in very old script style
Spittler Jack 1952  
Sproull Ralph 1935 7/?/1935
Sproull Ralph 1935 7/23/1935
Sproull Ralph 1935  
Stephenson Darrel   Smithville, Ga.; written in charcoal
Stiles M H 1899 8/5/1899; w/ J.P. Davidson
Stokes M D   Fitzgerald, Ga., Dec 29?
Stokes M D    
Swanson Herbert 1941 to left of date is “H.S.”
T W   ??40
T 198   1973  
Tatum P.A.    
Taylor T B   Douglasville
Teahh? Miss E 1894 9/7/1894 with 6 other names
Thompson H   4/14/??18; w/ G.L. Jones
Thompson Pratt 1901 5/22/1901; Cassville, Ga.; w/ Milholland
Tr. 1111     written twice
Troop 115     written w/ black spray paint
Troop 288      
Troup 172      
Troup 172   1948 3/13/1948
Troup 191      
Troup 198      
Troup 198      
Troup 198      
U S      
Vann Jack   Boaz, Ala.
W N H      
Walpole Miss Ligare? 1917 8/15/1917 Charleston, SC
Ware R C O 1896 8/19/1896; w/ Ware C F and R E Griffin
Ware C F 1896 8/19/1896; w/ Ware R C O and R E Griffin
Waters Ray    
Whatley Christine 1941 8/25/1941; charcoal, “Please write Christine Whatley, Blakely, Georgia”
Whitter? Harry 1958 11/23/1958
Willey Davis   Kingston
Williams H P    
Williams Beula    
Williams Sara    
Williams ? E    
Wills Julian 1938 Hammonds listed below; may be same person; Rome, Ga.
Wills Julian 1938  
Willson Albert 1900 11/25/1900; old style writing
Willson Frank 1900 11/25/1900
Winfield      
Withers Jean 1934 Austell, Ga.
Wofford Buck 1854  
Wofford W T 1844 same style as J.W. Freeman
Word M H 1914 could be Ward
Word Frank 1914 could be Ward
Word Frank 1894 7/3/1894;w/ Mary Lee Word 8/18/1883 – could be birth dates
Word Mary Lee 1883 8/18/1883; w/ Frank Word 7/3/1894 – could be birth dates
Word A W 1921 Mr & Mrs A W, Wilmington, Del.(r’ship w/ Frank and Mary Lee? Same loc)
Word F 1895? Hogansville, Ga or Ala
Wylly A.C. 1858  
Wylly Davis   Livingston?
Wylly A C 1858 w/ C H Goulding and J T Groves
Yarrows W F   questionable initials
Young R.L.    
Young Neal 1895 1/11/1895; w/ J A Barton
  L.M.   script
  Robert    
  Willie    
  Kathleen    
  KEM-CL    
  Clyde    
  Willie    
  K K M    
  William    
  Charlie    
  Willie 1947  
  Clyde 1947  
  Scott    
  Milner 1894 with Mary Munford 1894
  Bessie 1923 9/16/1923 with Katie
  Katie 1923 9/16/1923 with Bessie
  Rubie    
  Mr. Oscar    
  Effie Mae?    
  Martha 1921 w/ Clifton and Clayton
  Clifton 1921 w/ Martha and Clayton
  Clayton 1921 w/ Martha and Clifton
  W H M E 1882 1882/July; etched beautifully; to left of Joe Ragsdale
  Leila 1887 Leila plus Byron
  Byron 1887 w/ Leila

AMOS T. AKERMAN

by Guy Parmenter

Many of our forefathers who endured the hardships of a time we can now only read about can still be found today resting peacefully in the numerous cemeteries which dot the landscape throughout Bartow County. Nowhere else is it possible to look so deeply into our past. A cemetery can be a wonderful world of discovery and a voyage through time, especially Cartersville’ s Oak Hill. At rest there may be found quite a few of the early settlers who have left their legacy on mankind. We have all heard of Sam Jones, the noted Methodist evangelist and Rebecca Felton, our country’s first woman United States Senator. There are Charles H. Smith, alias Bill Arp, Mark A. Cooper, the ”Iron King” of Georgia, Pierce Manning Butler Young, the youngest major general in the Confederate Army and many other notable and interesting people.

Today I write about one of these pioneers, a man with very impressive credentials inscribed upon a monument at his grave. He is a lesser known person to today’s generation. However, in his time, this individual was a man of national prominence. His legacy would be one of honesty, integrity and a defender of human rights. Welcome Amos Tappen Akerman to the list of growing memories of our past. Inscribed upon that monument is his epitaph, which reads as follows:

In Thought Clear And Strong,

In Purpose Pure And Elevated,

In Moral Courage Invincible,

He Lived Loyal To His Convictions

Avouring Them With Candor,

And Supporting Them With Firmness.

A Friend Of Humanity,

In His Zeal To Serve Others,

He Shrank From No Peril To Himself,

He Was Able, Faithful, True!

These are very intriguing words left by a loving family.

Amos Tappan Akerman, Attorney General of the United States July 8, 1870-January 10, 1872. Photo courtesy of Mark Akerman.

Perhaps these words were left for me, someone of another generation to keep the memory of Amos T. Akerman alive.

Amos was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire on February 23, 1821, the ninth of twelve children born to Benjamin and Olive Meloan Akerman. Benjamin was a civil engineer by trade and of the fifth generation of Akermans to live in North America. According to descendent, Mark Akerman, ”the Akermans of Portsmouth came from the burgher class in England. Their staunch Protestantism was converted into the sterner theology of the Old North Church where the family has occupied a pew for more than two centuries.

Amos began his education in the local school in Portsmouth before transferring to Phillip’s Exeter Academy in 1836. Amos remained at the Academy for three years until August 25, 183 9. With the financial help of his grandmother and a friend at the Academy, Amos entered Dartmouth College, arriving in Hanover on September 27, 1839. That same evening, he was examined by Professors Chase and San borne and admitted as a sophomore. While there, Amos was a member of the United Fraternity, serving as its President from 1841 until May 1842. This was one of two literary and debating societies at Dartmouth. He was also elected to Phi Beta Kappa. During his senior year, Amos was one of four editors of the Dartmouth, a literary magazine in its third volume. After graduating college in 1842 he went to Murfreesboro, North Carolina, where he opened a school and taught for ten months, beginning October 24, 1842. He lived in the home of Dr. Robert Worthington. After a brief trip to Portsmouth, Amos moved to Richmond County, Georgia, at the urging of a former classmate, setting up a new school on January 22, 1844. This new school was financed by Mr. Everett Sapp for the benefit of his own children, but was open to other students. Akerman would teach there until December, 1844. Amos was then employed by John Whitehead of Bath, South Carolina to teach his children and those of his brother. At this point in Amos’ life, he was financially able to reimburse his former classmate at Phillips Exeter Academy who l1ad helped finance his Dartmouth education. Amos would write in his diary that ‘”the fears that I might never pay this debt was a constant source of anxiety until it was fully paid. Then I breathed more freely. I could not bear the thought that he should be the loser through kindness to me.”

In 1845, Judge John Berrien and his family visited the Whitehead home. John McPherson Berrien was a former U.S. Senator from Georgia, a former Judge and a for1ner U.S. Attorney General in President Andrew Jackson’s cabinet. While there, Berrien requested that Akerman become a tutor for his children, which he declined. The proposal was later renewed and accepted, with Amos arriving in Savannah on November 21, 1846. John Berrien was a highly successful lawyer in Savannah and proved a qualified teacher for Amos Akerman, who began his study of the law under hi1n. Berrien had a good law library and Amos read extensively. After about two years, Amos traveled to Peoria, Illinois where his sister Celia Rugg lived. For six months, he worked and studied in the law office of A.0. and A.L. Merriman. The frigid northern climate did not suit Amos, so he returned to the south, settling in Habersham County, Georgia. While working for John Berrien, Amos had spent summers at Clarksville, in Habersham County. In fact, Amos bought the summer home of John Berrien upon his return to Georgia and began farming while continuing to read and study law.

On October 18, 1850, Amos petitioned Judge James Jackson of the Superior Court of tl1e Western Circuit of Georgia for the purpose of being allowed to practice law. Judge Jackson appointed a committee of four to examine Akerman. They found him both knowledgeable and well versed in the law and as a result, Amos was admitted to practice law. Amos remained in Habersham County, both farming and practicing law, until January, 1856 when he moved to Elberton, Elbert County, Georgia. The following July, Amos entered into law practice with Robert Hester and according to Amos, ”In short time the business of the firm became enough to employ all my time, and I have ever since led the life of a busy country lawyer”. In politics, Mr. Akerman was a southern Whig until the party’s demise around 1856. No doubt Amos was influenced by his good friend and former teacher, John Berrien, a staunch Whig. In the Presidential election of 1860, won by Abraham Lincoln, Amos supported the Constitutional Union candidate, John Bell of Tennessee. Bell’s views of conservatism, a vigorous defense of the Union, plus his opposition to expanding slavery into the new territories was very much like that of Amos Akerman.

As the secessionist movement swept across the south, Akerman opposed Georgia’s involvement. When Georgia did finally secede and war broke out, Amos elected not to join the Confederate Army right away. Having been born and raised in the north, his feelings were divided. Amos said, ”I reluctantly adhered to the Confederate cause. I was a Union 1nan until the North see1ned to have abandoned us. In January, 1860, the United States steamer, Star of the West, on her way to relieve Fort Sumter, was fired on by the secessionists of fort Moultrie, and compelled to return to the North. The Militia of Georgia, under orders from Governor Brown, seized Fort Pulaski and the arsenal, near Augusta, and these acts were not resented by the government at Washington. Not caring to stand up fora government which would not stand up for itself, and viewing the Confederate government as practically established in the South, I gave it 1ny allegiance though with great distrust of its peculiar principles”. He did, however, join Company Hof the Third Georgia Cavalry of the State Guard as a private on August 22, 1863. He later served in the quartermaster department, being ordnance officer in the regiment of Colonel Robert Toombs. Captain Amos Akerman later became assistant quartermaster of the militia division under General Gustavas Smith. This placed Amos in the defense of Atlanta in September 1864 and the gradual retreat in the face of Sherman’s famous “march to the sea”.

The Akerman family lot at Oak Hill Cemetery

On May 28, 1864, Amos married Martha Rebecca Galloway of Athens. Amos apparently met her on one of his many business trips to Athens or while serving with the State Guard near Athens.

Martha was the youngest of five children born to the Rev. Samuel Galloway and Rebecca Erwin Scudder at St. Mary’s, Georgia on May 8, 1841. Martha was of distinguished colonial ancestry. Her maternal great-grandfather, James McClain, was killed in battle while serving in the Revolutionary War, his last act having been one of such heroism that congress voted to his family a medal in commemoration of his heroic death. Sadly, Martha was only three months old when her mother died during a yellow fever epidemic at St. Mary’s. The final tragedy of Martha’s young life occurred when her father abandoned his children to their maternal grandparents, Jacob and Hester Scudder, in Princeton, New Jersey. Rev. Galloway then moved to Texas and remarried, dying there in 1891, never having contributed any further support to his children. Martha moved to Athens, Georgia at the age of fourteen to live with her uncle, Alexander Scudder, who ran a boys’ school there. Later Martha attended Mt. Holyoke Seminary before becoming a school teacher in South Carolina. At the request of her Uncle Alexander, she returned to open a girls’ school in Athens. Amos and Martha would eventually have seven children, the three eldest born in Elberton and the others in Cartersville. The oldest, Benjamin, was born in 1866, followed by Walter in 1868, Alexander in 1869, Joseph in 1873, Charles in 1875, Alfred in 1877 and Clement in 1880.

Following the war, the United States Congress had divided the South into military districts in order to speed up reconstruction. Part of this Congressional Plan was to rewrite each southern state’s constitution. The military commander, General John Pope, called for a statewide election in late 1867 in order to decide whether a constitutional convention should be held as mandated by Congress and at the same time elect delegates to the convention. The Georgia voters approved the convention and Amos Akerman was elected one of 166 delegates to it. The delegates were made up of thirty-seven Negroes, nine white carpetbaggers, approximately twelve conservative white Georgians, and the remainder, like Amos Akerman, white Georgians (commonly called scalawags) who wanted to put the ways of the Amos Akerman would become one of the principal leaders of this convention which began on December 9, 1867 in Atlanta and continued until March 1868. It was reported that one of the finest constitutions of any southern state came out of this convention. Amos would be credited with authoring the judicial system embodied in that document. According to From New Hampshire to Georgia, by Mark Akerman, “there was a strong movement in the convention to insert clauses in the constitution which would permit the repudiation of all previous private indebtedness. Since Amos was unable to defeat the movement and did not wish to become a part of it, he resigned and went home. The U.S. Congress would later remove the repudiating clauses when submitted for approval.”

Amos T. Akerman portrait on display in the U.S. Justice Department. Artist, Freeman Thorpe, was paid $5.00 in I875 for his work. Picture courtesy of Mark Akerman.

Akerman had become a member of the Republican party and unlike most Republicans, he enjoyed the esteem of Georgians from all social classes and political beliefs. This was quite a tribute to Amos. For the most part, the Republican party, who held power in this state for a short period following the war, were objects of general indignation and scorn, and their administration of affairs a record of incompetency and corruption. In 1868, Amos became a Grant elector in the former General’s first race for President. The victorious Grant rewarded Akerman for his devotion to his campaign the following year by appointing him United States District Attorney for Georgia. He began his office in December, 1869 and held the position until June, 1870. Amos’ chief concern as District Attorney was violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1866. He saw too often the rights of the Negro trampled on by many, including State government. The republicans, needing a strong southern voice in Washington, obtained the appointment of Akerman as Attorney General of the United States in 1870. The Attorney General position had just recently become vacant with the resignation of Ebeneezer Rockwood Hoar. Amos was sworn in on July 8th, by Justice Wylie of the District Supreme Court.

The office of Attorney General presented Amos with numerous challenges and responsibilities. For one thing, his duties were expanded by Congress to include supervision of the newly formed Justice Department. All government legal work previously performed by private attorneys was now under the jurisdiction of the Attorney General. Akerman was a firm believer in the law and now as the nation’s chief law enforcement officer, he was sworn to hold everyone in compliance, especially in the south where violence against former slaves was ever increasing. Amos summed up the hatred manifesting itself in the south in a letter to a friend. “A portion of our southern population hate the Northerner from the old grudge, hate the government of the United States because they understand it emphatically to represent northern sentiment, and hate the negro because he has ceased to be a slave and has been promoted to be a citizen and voter, and hate those of the southern whites who are looked upon as in political friendship with the north, with the United States Government and with the negro. These persons commit the violence that disturbs many parts of the south. Undoubtable the judgement of the great body of our people condemns this behavior, but they take no active measures to suppress it.”

Klan violence progressively increased in the south, especially throughout the Carolinas, resulting in new federal laws designed to enforce the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the U. S. Constitution. These Force Acts authorized the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, suppression of disturbance by force and heavy penalties on terrorist organizations. In South Carolina, Governor Robert K. Scott requested and received federal troops. Arrests were made, but it was soon evident that state courts could not and, in some cases, would not protect the rights of negroes. Akerman realized the need to personally go to South Carolina. Amos judged the situation so severe that he requested and obtained an order from President Grant suspending the writ of habeas corpus in nine counties. Suspected Klan terrorists could now be held accountable in the Federal courts without the possibility of being released before trial. Resulting Federal prosecution of suspected Klan members evoked widespread southern sympathy. Southern newspapers such as the Rockhill (S.C.) Lantern lashed out at Akerman and also Major Lewis Merrill, commanding the Federal troops. “If the walls of the McCaw House could disclose the secrets of headquarters, they could a tale unfold that would consign the names of Merrill and Akerman, his legal accomplice in catching Ku-Klux. How the one sunk the office of Attorney General and for two weeks turned constable at York County to prosecute his countrymen.”

Amos Akerman found himself caught in a political inferno between Northerners who were growing tired of the whole Reconstruction issue and Southerners, many in his own party, who refused to accept total equality. However, Amos Akerman did not waiver and continued the fight. Over half the cases prosecuted by Akerman’s lawyers were won.

Of course, the office of Attorney General had its lighter moments, as mentioned in a letter home. “Last night I had a call from one of the sprightliest and pleasantest talkers that I have ever met. And who do you think it was? General Sherman, that terrible ‘vandal’ of whose atrocious march through Georgia you have heard so much. If all vandals are like him, they are agreeable in the parlor, whatever they may be elsewhere!”

The end of his career as Attorney General came when the Pacific railroads became dissatisfied with a ruling he made in regard to a subsidy in public land, in which the Attorney General said their charter did not authorize. According to My Memoirs of Georgia Politics by Mrs. William H. “Rebecca” Felton in 1911, she describes the aftermath of the Pacific railroad decision. “The Secretary of the Interior sided with the railroads, and sought to override the decision. The conflict began. I think the secretary’s name was Delano, one of the men who got into the State Road lease in Georgia, and he understood the temper of our half-frenzied people in Georgia against Republicans – a frenzy that was fanned into a consuming flame by so-called Democratic politicians who were busy all the time in cramming their pockets during Bullock’s reign. This honest man, this upright lawyer, was actually hounded out of General Grant’s Cabinet by men in Washington City, owned and used by these Pacific railroad authorities, and the run-mad politicians in Georgia actually danced in fiendish glee over the result. Genera! Grant stood by his friend for some months, but at last he yielded and asked for Colonel Akerman’ s resignation, but not until an interested person went to Colonel Akerman ‘s wife and hinted that $50,000 would not stand in the way  and all opposition to Colonel Akerman would be withdrawn, if the Pacific railroad land subsidy was allowed to stand.” A confidential letter from the President to Mr. Akerman dated December 13, 1871 read,

“Circumstances convince me that a change in the office you now hold is desirable, considering the best interests of the government, and I therefore ask your resignation. In doing so, however, I wish to express my appreciation of the zeal, integrity, and industry you have shown in the performance of all of your duties, and the confidence I feel personally by tendering to you the Florida Judgeship, now vacant, or that of Texas. Should any foreign mission at my disposal without a removal for the purpose of making a vacancy, better suit your tastes, I would gladly testify my appreciation in that way. My personal regard for you is such that I could not bring myself to saying what I say here any other way than through the medium of a letter. Nothing but a consideration for public sentiment could induce me to indite this. With great respect, Your obedient servant,

U.S. Grant.”

Akerman did resign his post on January I 0, 1872 and was succeeded by George H. Williams of Oregon. When asked about his tenure as Attorney General, Akerman would state … “! believe it was satisfactory to the President; but it was not satisfactory to certain powerful interests, and a public opinion unfavorable to me was created in the country. I resigned the office and came home.” To one of his sons he wrote, “Love your country. Be a true patriot. Understand public questions. Ask what is right, try to make it popular; but cleave to it, popular or not.” Amos T. Akerman had never succumbed to the graft and corruption that ruled government and business in the years following the war. He left the office of Attorney General as he entered into it, an honest man dedicated to enforcing the letter of the law and a man whose integrity could not be bought. In his book, Region, Race, and Reconstruction, author William S. Mcfeely wrote, “Perhaps no Attorney General since his tenure … and the list includes Ramsey Clark in the 1960’s … has been more vigorous in the prosecution of cases designed to protect the lives and rights of black Americans.”

The Free Press in Cartersville published this story from the New York Times on February 10, 1881. Among the many stories which are told of the eccentricities of A. T. Akerman, none is more characteristic than that of his encounter with a Western Union telegraph boy. The attorney-general, who had only just been called to his high office, and who knew next to nothing of its duties, was one day very busy at his desk, a pile of papers migher than his head were in front of him, and he had given orders that he was on no account to be disturbed. But this prohibition was not believed to extend to telegraph boys, and one of those industrious and not always well treated Little servants of the public, was admitted. He delivered his dispatch. The attorney-general signed for it without looking up. Then the boy, not noticing that the time was an unfavorable one, began to tell of a project which he and his associates had on hand, and asked for a small subscription. Worn out with work which he did not fully understand, the new attorney general returned such an answer that the boy was only too glad to get out of the office as fast as his active legs would carry him. Then Mr. Akerman went on reading, altering and signing the papers before him. So, he went on for three or four hours, until his work was done. Then he rang for one of his clerks and ordered that the telegraph messenger who had brought him the dispatch be sent for. After some difficulty the boy was found, and, still remembering his former experience, was, trembling and afraid, brought before the attorney general. But the latter, instead of soundly scolding him as he expected, patted his head and said: ”My little 1nan, it is the duty of United States officials to be polite to all those who call on them. This is a rule which I forgot this morning. Here is a five-dollar bill, my subscription to the fund of which you spoke to me; and I beg you, don’t mind what occurred between us a few hours ago.” Attorney General Akerman was not a popular man in Washington, but there were not a few of the official gentlemen who decried him who might with great benefit to themselves and the public have adopted some of his methods.

According to family notes written by Minnie Akerman, the wife of Amos’s third son Alexander, ”Amos never swerved from his loyal devotion to Grant. Nothing could dim his admiration for hi1n nor shake his faith in Grant’s goodness and ability.”

In a letter written to his wife on July 2, 1870, Amos states, ”Last evening I dined at the President’s with four senators. I had the honor of attending Mrs. Grant to the table and of sitting next to her. She is intelligent, ladylike and particularly pleased me by speaking of her husband as Mr. Grant.” Why any man would forgive the ingratitude shown Akerman is far beyond the understanding of most. However, Amos, a man of foresight and judgment, knew and understood the pressures descending upon Grant. A few months before Amos’ resignation, he would write to his wife the following, ”I want you to learn something of the dimensions of a new effort which I am satisfied is going to oust me from office because I will not sub serve certain selfish interests. If nobody but myself is to be affected, I should feel no concern; but I have a delicacy on the point of exposing the President to annoyance and perhaps the censure and dislike of powerful interests, on my part. If the combination is serious in its strength, I have a disposition to get out of the way by resigning.”

Amos never aspired to be a political giant and was just thankful for the opportunity to do his small part in restoring the union.

Akerman left Washington to join his family at their residence in Cartersville, where he had moved from Elberton some twelve months earlier in January 1871, after a storm of controversy while still serving as U. S. Attorney General. In an election held December 20, 1870, Emory P. Edwards, a renowned lawyer of Elbert County, was the Democratic candidate for representative. He was opposed by Nathaniel Blackwell, a former slave. When the votes were counted, Mr. Edwards had won by a vote of almost four to one.

Amos Akerman was very interested in the candidacy of Blackwell back in his home county. According to the History of Elbert County, Georgia, 1790-1935, Amos made a special trip fro1n Washington, D. C. to cast his vote for him. Akerman apparently had an interest in seeing that the rights of Blackwell were protected, as well as those of Negroes who had not so long before been granted the Right to vote. While home in Elberton, he assembled a crowd of Negroes, encouraging them to exercise their right to vote and attempted to lead the1n to the poles. His actions proved very unpopular to a community inhabited by white people slow-to change fro1n their old southern ways and beliefs. The History of Elbert County, Georgia 1790-1935 went on to say that as a whole, Negroes remained with their old masters after Emancipation and disregarded the efforts of those like Mr. Akerman who attempted to arouse their right of freedom. No doubt, intimidation, fear, a lack of skills, wealth and education had a lot. to do with the failed efforts of Amos Akerman. His actions during the election would leave the Akerman family as outcasts in a community they considered home. The Elberton Gazette on January 3, 1871 carried this notice: ”Departed: Attorney General Akerman left this place (perhaps forever), on Wednesday last, apparently disappointed and disgusted with the result of the elections. We care not how long he 1nay live, nor how far he may go. He carried his family with him.”

Akerman pursued his work as an attorney in Cartersville. He was said to have had a large and lucrative practice in the United States Courts, where he was regarded as the equal of any in_ legal ability. Amos chose Cartersville for several reasons, one being its location on the railroad. Another reason was his family’s strong ties to the Presbyterian faith and Cartersville had a flourishing parish. The political and racial climate in Cartersville was much more subdued and provided a safe environment for the Akermans. We also know that Amos was a good friend of Warren Akin, a local Bartow County attorney noted for serving as the Speaker of the Georgia House of Representatives in 1861, for serving in the Second Confederate Congress at Richmond and for pleading the first four cases of the Georgia Supreme Court. Warren had strong family ties to Amos’s former home of Elbert County, being born there in 181 1. Akin apparently had great respect for Amos’ legal ability, calling upon him in May, 1865 to intercede with U.S. occupational forces in order that he could return home without fear of being arrested for his role in the Confederate Government. The large two story Akerman home was located at what is today 336 South Tennessee Street. It was built in 1848 by a Mr. Woodbridge. The house previously had two other owners. The first was Malcomb Johnson and the latter a Col. Pritchett who sold it to Akerman. Unfortunately, the home was destroyed by fire in 1900 while the residence of Amos’ third son, Walter.

Site in Cartersville of Amos Akerman ‘s home. The actual house on South Tennessee Street was totally destroyed by fire on September 26, 1900.

Amos loved Cartersville and remarked more than once that he would spend the remainder of his life here. He was very active in the affairs of the Presbyterian Church and continued his hand in national politics supporting the Republican Party. In fact, in the months prior to his death, he took several extended trips in support of the Republican party, coming home greatly fatigued. During the elections of 1880, he spoke in several of the northern states to great crowds, often making addresses two hours and upwards in length. In southern Ohio, Amos and Eugene Hale, of Maine, were announced to speak. Mr. Akerman was on time and talked for two hours. A dispatch was sent him to hold the crowd until Hale could get there. Fresh trainloads of eager Republicans had just come in, and rather than disappoint them, he rallied his remaining strength and continued to speak until he broke down from sheer exhaustion.

Amos T. Akerman died on Tuesday night, December21, 1880, after being stricken with rheumatic fever the Thursday before. He had been attended by his longtime friend, Dr. H. W. M. Miller of Atlanta. The announcement the following morning of his death brought great sorrow to our community, the state and the nation. Georgia had lost one of her best citizens, and the Republican Party the man to whom more that any other they have looked to for counsel and guidance.

The funeral took place the following Thursday afternoon with the Rev. Theodore E. Smith of the Presbyterian Church officiating.

The Cartersville Bar, City government and a large number of citizens packed the church to hear a most earnest and tender tribute to Amos Akerman. The local press reported that none had any but the kindest utterances of regard and esteem for Mr. Akerman. Those who had most widely differed with him in politics were readiest and foremost in making acknowledgments of his high character, his great attainments and his unselfish pure life.

Prior to Amos’ death, a movement was underway to obtain for Amos an appointment to the U.S. Federal Circuit Court of Appeals. ”Resolved by the members of the bar and citizens of Bartow County, Georgia that we recognize the eminent ability, the unswerving integrity, and commanding influence of the Hon. Amos T. Akerman, avail ourselves of this opportunity to endorse his candidacy for the appointment of judge of the United States Court of the fifth judicial circuit and to express our earnest desire that the same may be conferred upon him. Although every member of this meeting is a democrat and differing entirely fro1n Mr. Akerman politically, yet such is our confidence in hi1n as a citizen and a lawyer, that we feel his appointment would prove eminently satisfactory to the people of the state wherein he will be called to preside, and will do much to conciliate them and strengthen their faith in the administration appointing him.” Weeks after his death, the ”Washington Star” reported: ”It is stated that the President had fully made up his mind to appoint the late Attorney General Akerman to the vacant circuit Judgeship occasioned by the promotion of Judge Woods to the United States Supreme Bench.”

The death of Mr. Akerman at the age of 59 had left his widow alone with seven children ranging from a few months to fourteen years. Life is not always fair, but with God’s help all seven children grew up to live productive lives. Benjamin, the eldest, was a mining engineer in Mexico. His life ended in Washington State on December 17, 1927. He is buried in the family plot at Cartersville’s Oak Hill Cemetery. Walter was Postmaster in Cartersville for 22 · years, a teacher, a WWI veteran and a U.S. Marshall. His last job was as a Public Relations Special Agent for the Seaboard Airline Railway. Walter passed away April 29, 1951 and is also buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, along with his wife Susan Young Akerman. Alexander became a lawyer serving as U. S. District Attorney for the Southern District of Georgia. He would later practice law in Orlando, Florida before being appointed as Federal Judge tor the Southern District of Florida. Alexander died August 21, 1948. Joseph would become an obstetrician and educator, serving in the latter capacity at the University of Georgia as a professor of obstetrics until his death on December 9, 1943. Charles also would become a lawyer, setting up practice in Macon, Georgia. He died November, 1937 in Macon. Alfred was State Forester for Massachusetts, professor of Forestry at the University of Georgia and last, chairman of the Forestry Department at the University of Virginia. Clement was a Lieutenant on Pershing’s staff during WWI and assisted the War Department in compiling a history of that war. He would afterwards serve as a professor of economics at Reed College in Portland, Oregon.

Mrs. Akerman remained in Cartersville until 1892 when she moved to Athens. She became greatly interested in missionary work for the Presbyterian Church and traveled extensively too many foreign lands. Martha Akerman died at her home in Athens on Friday, January 19, 1912 from heart failure. Her remains were returned to Cartersville for burial beside her husband.

The late Rebecca Felton wrote this story in My Memoirs of Georgia Politics, which attests to the honesty and integrity of Amos Akerman. ”The Honorable Mr. Stephens (presumed to be Alexander Stephens, Vice President of the Confederacy, a U.S. Congressman, a Georgia Governor and a close friend of the Feltons) said to me: When Honorable Thomas W. Thomas of Georgia, lay on his death­bed he told his wife that he wished to advise her as to the future .. Said the dying man: If you need a lawyer, and you will need one, I tell you to employ Colonel Akerman. I know him-he is absolutely honest. He will serve you well and he will treat you right.”

So, remember this man of national prominence who was the only ex-Confederate to serve in a Presidential Cabinet during Reconstruction. Amos Tappan Aker1nan, like so many others, migrated to Bartow County only to call it home.

This article was compiled by Guy Parmenter with the assistance of J. Mark Akerman (Lake City, Florida), Francis Akerman (Opa Locka, Florida), Robert W. Wilson (Orlando, Florida) and the Bartow History Center.

Ascension Church’s Beginnings: 1844 to 1907

By Peggy L. Brown
Senior Warden, Church of the Ascension, 2019

On the occasion of the Episcopal Church of the Ascension’s 175th anniversary as a congregation, I asked our rector, the Very Rev. Mary K. Erickson, how the church today is connected to the one in 1844.  “We have been proclaiming the Good News continuously here in Bartow for 175 years,” she said.  “One of the things I really like about our liturgy and our way of understanding the work we do as ‘Church’ is that through time and in this space we have been saying virtually the same words–even as the Book of Common Prayer has changed, much of it has not–through the generations.”

On Ascension Day, May 30, 2019, the tiny gray church with the red doors kicked off its year-long celebration. Now located on West Cherokee Avenue in Cartersville, the church began on November 6, 1844, when the Rev. Thomas Scott, of St. James Episcopal Church in Marietta, and Bishop Stephen Elliott, the first bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Georgia, visited the Etowah River. According to the bishop’s diary, the two met with community leaders, including his friend William Henry Stiles, Savannah native, statesman, Ambassador to Austria, and agricultural innovator. Elliott was encouraged  to form a parish near the Etowah River “in this most interesting country.” After the bishop preached on November 8, 1844, at Pettit’s Creek Baptist Meeting House (the church that became Cartersville Baptist Church), “it was determined among the friends of the church to erect a church, a parsonage, and a school house” and call it Ascension. Soon Major John S. Rowland–of Rowland Springs fame–donated ten acres for the church near Valley View plantation, and forty acres were purchased directly across Euharlee road from the parcel, the area which is now River Station Subdivision, where the parsonage and school house were built.

Though marked by times of struggle when Ascension had no rector or when the rector divided his duties among up to four mission churches, Ascension has survived into the twenty-first century. What helped the small church endure? Partly the support of landowners migrating from Savannah and elsewhere, such as the Stiles, Shelman, and Gilreath families and partly the liturgy helped, according to Erickson, rector at Ascension since 2010. Liturgy comes from Greek word liturgia meaning the work of the people for the common good. Erickson said that the liturgy is key to emphasizing “the role of the people over and above the role of the clergy. It is important to have an ordained person, but regardless of who is the clergy, it is the community that gathers that really matters.”

It seems, in fact, that in the Stiles 1840 home Etowah Cliffs, Episcopal services in the drawing room had been the norm. William Henry and wife Eliza Mackay Stiles often led Episcopal services such as Morning Prayer on Sunday mornings with family and friends present. Rector diaries from 1844 state that prayer books were circulated, and “thus the means of knowing our doctrines and modes of worship have been open to a few.”  The liturgy was in the hands of the people in their homes.  Bishop Elliott also wrote that he held services at Etowah Cliffs on Sunday evenings when he visited. 

So, as the church organization began in 1844, Morning Prayer at home was a regular event in at least one of the founding members’ homes. Soon a teacher and a rector were hired for Ascension.  Rev. Scott reported in 1845 that a “very accomplished classical scholar and able teacher, Frederick Elwell,” had been acquired for the School House.  By 1846, the first rector Rev. Owen P. Thackara had charge of the Ascension mission and the Episcopal missions in both Cassville and Kingston, as well as the one in Floyd County.  But the difficulties of this mission and ill health compelled Thackara to abandon his post by early 1847.  The pattern of rectors leaving after a short tenure required the people in the community to carry on the liturgy without them.  The liturgy, Erickson said, is not just for ourselves.  “Every Sunday when we are saying the liturgy,” she said, “we are doing something in this community by continuing this word, this proclamation.” 

In 1848 Rev. Thompson L. Smith served ably two Sundays every month, and following “in the afternoon of each Sabbath, services [were] held for a large and attentive congregation of people of color,” usually at Etowah Cliffs. Rev. William J. Perdue served Ascension for eighteen months into 1851, but the same year Bishop Elliott noted “the absorption of the land into a few hands has so much diminished the population immediately around the church, as to render it a work of greater toil than ever, to plant the church successfully at this point.”

From 1851 through1860, Ascension was closed or without a rector for all but a couple of years, and similarly during the Civil War when—arguably—the help of God was needed most. However, the Episcopal church, Erickson said, “has a strong tradition of embracing the importance of our community, that the relationship with God and with one another is important. It’s not either-or; it’s both.”  This may have helped the small number of communicants, which in 1860 was described as “little more than a summer colony from Savannah.”

During the Civil War, Union soldiers encamped at Etowah Cliffs and Valley View, very close to Ascension and likely in the church itself.  But, history shows the damage inflicted upon the community.  From Etowah Cliffs Union Brigadier-General Milo S. Hascall wrote of the damage to personal property on May 23, 1864:  “I have seen as many as half a dozen houses and barns on fire at one time and in too many cases the wanton destruction of fine paintings and other works of art and culture has been reported to me, and also come under my own observation…”  Indeed, the Stiles library was completely destroyed, and the Episcopal mission at Cassville did not survive the Civil War. 

Ascension bounced back, however, as windows and a wood stove were added at the Etowah site in 1869. But by 1871 the congregation chose to move into the growing town of Cartersville. Much ado was exercised in this project, begun in 1871 by Rev. R.W.B. Elliott who sold the last twelve acres of property at the river for purchasing the lot in Cartersville. Early (1872-73) in the new Bishop John W. Beckwith’s tenure and with Beckwith’s influence and perhaps partiality, the church chose construction plans for a Carpenter “Country” Gothic style, built by local homebuilders the Jackson Brothers–for the new Church of the Ascension. Rev. Samuel J. Pinkerton oversaw the move from Etowah and fundraising for building materials in 1873.

During Reconstruction in the South everything was scarce—from lumber to money—so the project moved slowly. On March 13, 1873, the Cartersville Courant-American newspaper stated, “The new Episcopal church, in this city, is not going up very rapidly, owing to the difficulty getting lumber.” A week later, the building committee of Ascension published a “notification that the first installment is now called for.” In May 1873, Pinkerton noted in his rector diary that “every proper exertion has been made, on the part of the Church people, and others in Cartersville, to complete the building; but mainly on account of money embarrassments they have not been able to do as they wished.  They lack yet about one thousand dollars…” The community supported the building with a December 1873 fundraiser, advertised in the newspaper as follows:  “We understand that some of the young ladies and gentlemen of Cartersville design getting up a musical entertainment, to be interspersed with tableaux, for the benefit of the Episcopal church…We wish them success. The Episcopal church ought to be finished.  It will be an ornament to the city…”

By April of 1874 with gifts from “kind friends in Savannah, Augusta, and Macon” as well as one $400 gift from Grace Church, New York, the church we see today was finally occupied, consecrated on June 22, 1875, 144 years ago. Over time additions and demolitions to parsonages, education wings and parish halls have changed the overall property, but the central nave, the sanctuary that the community of Cartersville helped to build, remains very much the same.  According to Stiles descendant and current Ascension member Frederick Knight, “I don’t know anybody who doesn’t love that church.”

Erickson said that the first time she ever walked into it she “was struck by its beauty, its warmth, and the sense of all the prayers and the songs that have been said and the people that have been in that space over time.” She continued:  “But also…As Christians, we have been saying the same words of praise as everybody else around the world as part of the Anglican Communion.  So, it makes for a very rich and beautiful space to me.”

Having built a new church, the congregation of Ascension from 1875 through 1907 continued much as before:  sharing rectors with Cave Spring, Cedartown, Calhoun, Dalton, Kingston, or any combination of these mission churches. The bishop himself would often travel from Atlanta to conduct services, especially baptisms. During this 32-year span, eleven rectors served Ascension over 21 years with nine years unaccounted for. Highlights include the Rev. W.R. McConnell, who in 1866 wrote a history of the church for the Diocese of Georgia.  In it he listed names of vestrymen during his tenure:  the names George H. Gilreath and W.H. Stiles, Jr., among others, continued to appear.  In 1890 with Mr. Jones listed as Missionary in Charge, gas lights and aisle carpet were added to the nave.  With the Rev. George E. Benedict in 1892, Ascension reported 17 families and 79 individual members, an upward trend. Rev. F.W. Ambler—also rector of St. Andrews in Kingston–the church embarked on building a rectory in 1900, located directly behind the church in the current parking lot. 

Bishop Beckwith, whose tenure from 1868 till 1890, observed growth from 31 churches to 53 churches and chapels, with five missions added, according to Henry Thompson Malone’s book The Episcopal Church in Georgia 1733-1957. But one church, the mission at Kingston, did not survive after 1907 and was declared dormant. With the bishop’s death in 1890 and installation of the Right Reverend Cleland Kinloch Nelson, D.D., as bishop in 1892, discussion began for dividing the diocese into two to make overseeing it more manageable.  This finally occurred in 1907, with the creation of the Diocese of Atlanta—Columbus and Macon north–and the Diocese of Georgia—Augusta, Valdosta and Savannah south. Church of the Ascension, the little gray church, remained in the Diocese of Atlanta, a small mission church in Cartersville.

Sources for Ascension Church’s Beginnings:  1844 to 1907

By Peggy L. Brown

Books

Crumbliss, R. (1950). “Mode of Living in Other Days.” In J.B. Tate (Ed.), 2014. Sketches of        Bartow County(pp. 68-70). 

Malone, H. (1960). The Episcopal Church in Georgia 1733-1957. Diocese of Atlanta.

Hascall, M. (1864). Letter. In Keith Hebert, 2017.  The Long Civil War in the North Georgia       Mountains:  Confederate Nationalism, Sectionalism, and White Supremacy in Bartow    County, Georgia.U of Tennesee Press.

Episcopal Church. (1844, 1845, 1846, . . . , 1907).  Journal of the [Fiftieth, etc.]. . . Annual           Convention of the Diocese of Georgia.

Interviews

Erickson, M. (2019, May 29). Phone Interview.

Knight, F. (2019, May 31). Phone Interview.

Parmenter, G. (2019, June 10). Email Interview.

Newspapers

Cartersville Courant-American. (1873, December). Article.

Websites

Etowah Valley Historical Society. (2019). “William Henry Stiles—Ambassador to Austria.”         Retrieved from https://evhsonline.org.

Henkel, J. (2010). “William Henry Stiles, Jr.” Find a Grave. Retrieved from           https://www.findagrave.com.

Bartow’s Tunnel Mining Era Unearthed

By Joe F. Head

A sincere word of gratitude is extended to Mr. Stan Bearden for his civic mindedness to help bring these finds to the attention of the Etowah Valley Historical Society in the spirit of historic preservation

Following the discovery of gold in north Georgia and the 1838 removal of the Cherokee Nation to Indian Territory in Tahlequah, Oklahoma the rush to extract precious ores was on in Bartow County.

Early miners learned to recognize surface features such as color differences and topical weathered ores exposed on the ground. Miners began by panning for gold on creek banks and moved to digging vertical test well shafts in areas where surface signs indicated other ores waited for harvest.

Once a location revealed sufficient evidence miners moved down slope and dug a horizontal shaft into a hillside to reach the vertical test well and ore deposit.  As the ore tunnel was excavated, in some cases, timbers were installed to support the sides and ceiling. These mining tunnels were labor intensive being hand dug using picks and shovels with dirt and ore being removed by wrangling wheelbarrows, buckets and rail carts.

According to Mr. Stan Bearden, New Riverside Ochre’s VP for Operations and Geologist a series of forgotten tunnel mines have been unearthed as a result of modern open pit mining practices. Improved mining machinery and detection technology has led the industry to return to former fields that were abandoned a century ago. An unexpected result is the discovery of forgotten tunnels and artifacts.

The photograph on the left is an example of a test well dug prior to 1920. The photograph to the right is an entrance to a mining tunnel that was dug as a result of the test well. The tunnel entrance led to the test well and was once large enough to accommodate a standing man, but has suffered natural back fill of dirt encroaching from all sides and closing the entrance.

As modern mining operations returned to former ore sites and pit excavations were begun, often abandoned and forgotten tunnel shafts or vent wells were uncovered.

Left, Scott Panter inspects an unidentified former tunnel mine and Ricky Cabe, right is standing in the entrance of the former AKA Rev. Sam Jones ochre tunnel mine.
In the 1990’s tunnel remains were unearthed by open pit surface mining on East Main Street on the Kroger shopping complex of today. These timbers were approximately 30 feet below the surface.

Depending upon the size and quality of the ore deposit the tunnel was often large enough to accommodate a man walking upright because the earth is considered “competent” to support shaft mining. If the quantity of the ore was in great supply a rail system was installed with carts to transport the raw ore from the source. These carts were often heavy – duty wooden or metal boxes with iron frames and wheels that rolled on narrow gauge mining rails. Carts were pushed out by hand or pulled by mules.

The cart on the left is an enhanced photo of a NRO mining cart at a mining site. The cart to the right was rebuilt by NRO and donated to LakePoint Station in Emerson from salvaged parts found at a mining site in Emerson.

The nation’s first gold rush occurred in Lumpkin County Georgia and ignited a frenzy to remove the Indians, own land and prospect for gold. The miners followed the vein southwest leading into Bartow County and tracked mostly down Stamp Creek and Allatoona Creek. As gold miners exhausted the thinning gold they quickly discovered that Cass County held a rich supply of diverse minerals and ores, particularly iron ore, manganese, barite, ochre, graphite and bauxite.

Tunnel mining was first conducted by private individuals and families. However the early corporate companies that established tunnel mining included; American Ochre Company, Blue Ridge Ochre Company, New Riverside Ochre Company, Georgia Peruvian Ochre Company and Standard Ochre Company. Companies sold stock in their ventures to raise capital in order to fund operations, purchase land, buy equipment and pay employees.

Cherokee Ochre Company was acquired by New Riverside Ochre Company. The primary officers were John Akin, Paul Akin, T. R. Jones, Tom Baxter, William Bird, 1904.

An earlier study conducted by Stacy Lusk, Kennesaw State Intern, it was determined that as many as 140 incorporated and chartered mining companies operated in Bartow between 1840 and 1950.

Following a century of Bartow mining the “last man standing” is New Riverside Ocher (NRO). New Riverside Ochre was originally founded in the late 1800’s as Riverside Ochre under the Satterfield family and following a devastating fire  continues operations as of this date as NRO. Since 1877, Bartow has been mined by more than 10 ochre companies and has produced more than 1.6 million tons of pigment as of 2018.

As the demand for ores flexed and waned, NRO has found the need to return to former ore fields to locate remote deposits missed by early operations due to inadequate exploration and extraction technology. When deposits were discovered modern equipment was moved to the site to extract ore using open pit mining methods.

This practice has yielded fresh supplies of ore and has begun to reveal multiple instances of traditional tunnel mining sites that have long been forgotten.

NRO has uncovered several sites among others in land lots 387 and 390. Today these land lots are now occupied by the new Kroger shopping complex, Star Bucks and Avalon Apartments along East Main Street to the McDonalds at I-75 and follows I-75 south to where Old River Road runs below the interstate west toward the Old Dixie Highway 293 at the NRO headquarters. These sites were discovered as modern day open pit mining opened up large expanses of ground.

The image above reveals evidence of the many early tunnel mines that once existed in Bartow County prior to pit mining. NRO’s exploration proved the presence of deeper ochre missed by earlier mining and was reopened in early 1990. As the earth was removed from the surface a cross section of vertical timbers were uncovered and can be seen still embedded in the bank on the standing side of the open pit wall. This mine was previously owned by the Cherokee Ochre Company and was in operation prior to 1920. The tunnel was used to extract ochre and later the property was acquired by NRO. Once NRO returned to the site to begin open pit mining it was re-named the Bobbie Mine and in the process unearthed the old tunnel shaft remains. Here several artifacts were found including timber construction, carbide lamp filaments, narrow gauge cart rails and beverage bottles. The site is now covered by the Kroger store in land lot 406.

Carbide filament jar was found at the Blue Ridge Mine off of East Main Street. The narrow gauge rail was uncovered northeast of NRO offices  in land lot 533 and the mining timber was an overhead support and found at the Yellow Jacket Mine LL 475.                 

As technology improved tunnel mining was replaced with surface mining by using the open pit method excavated by large earth moving equipment to involve excavators, super dump trucks, massive draglines and pans. Matt Holton is seen below working the Big White Center open pit mine. It is not uncommon to find abandoned equipment in the field once it served its purpose.

The photograph above is of a 1900 era tunnel that was uncovered by NRO while opening a pit mine in land lot 533 northeast of the NRO main office. It was previously known as the Wormelsdorf mine. The tunnel was about 10 feet below the current day surface. Open pit mining continued below this level to reach deeper deposits of ochre. However, NRO preserved this finding for study and documentation. The find also indicated a rail system had been in place to service this tunnel.

A system of tunnels is also known off of Paga Mine Road west of Highway 293 and south of the Etowah River in Land Lot 676. Here the Peruvian Ochre Mining Company of New York operated a series of ochre tunnels. Soon the Satterfield Mining Company (predecessor of NRO) established a competitive operation across the river. Today NRO owns the former Peruvian Ochre Mining Company and associated acreage. 

The Peruvian Ochre Company developed an active tunnel site with drying sheds, rail trams, processing house, rail turn table and roads. This site has been well documented by Dr. Thomas Watson in 1906 and illustrates the vast tunnel systems that once existed in the early mining history of Bartow County.

In northeast Bartow County was perhaps the greatest concentration of tunnels located in one operation. Located near Pine Log Mountain east of highway 411 north of Falling Springs Road was a mining quarry community known as Flexatile. Here an enormous deposit of slate was mined producing slabs of slate and granular material for roofing shingles. According to Mr. David Vaughan, owner of the property, the operation was conducted by digging a deep wide pit of several acres in scope and then digging horizontal tunnels into the banks of the pit. Mr. Vaughan states there were over nine miles of tunnels in this operation and when producing would create a vast amount of dust. The tunnels were named for famous New York city streets such as Broad Way, Park Avenue and Madison Avenue. The mining company that developed the site was Richardson Company followed by Funkhouser Incorporated. 

Funkhouser/Flexitile Slate Mine, Courtesy of Georgia State Archives Digital Vault

About a mile northwest of Kingston was a very successful lime works next to the Western and Atlantic Railroad that became known as Cement, Georgia. Cement was established by Reverend Charles Howard in the 1850’s along with his Spring Bank School for women. Here he mined lime stone to manufacture cement and operated lime kilns to process the ore.

Lime tunnel entrance and interior at Cement, GA Photos by Garylee Prewett

About two miles west of Cartersville on Hwy 113 is the legendary Ladd’s Mountain also known as Quarry Mountain. This site is also associated with historic Native Americans and particularly the Mississippian period. Here limestone and dolomite were mined. Initially natural caves were used to extract lime and then blasting was employed to bring down the front face of the mountain. Approximately 2000 feet of passageways were documented with a large cavern. It is thought that as many as a dozen entrances once existed.

Map by the Georgia Speleological Survey (GSS) of the National Speleological Society, 1972-1974

However, Bartow mining history is not without catastrophes. The newspapers often reported mining accidents and deaths associated with railroad mishaps, cave-ins and collapses related to tunnels and bank cut ‘slick-head” slides.

One such accident occurred October of 1904 when a great mass of dirt, timbers and ore gave way and tumbled on a force of men working in the Morgan Mine cut. The iron ore mine was located slightly south east of Cartersville, (now east of I-75 south of Pine Mountain Trail Head) north of Old River Road. This accident appears to have received greater news coverage than any others found in this research.

The October 6, 1904 issue of Cartersville News and Courant reported that the mine had several side tunnels resulting in high mounds of dirt. The owner was moving among tunnel crews when the dirt gave way. Five men were buried in the accident including the owner of the mine, Mr. R. P. Morgan. Rescue crews arrived by train from Cartersville and Emerson. According to the paper Mr. Morgan and one other man were crushed to death. Morgan was also pierced by large splinters from a shattered tram car.  Two others were recovered, but badly injured. The fifth man, a part time day laborer was never found.

Perhaps the best account of this accident appeared in the October 4, 1904 issue of the Atlanta Constitution. According to this report the mining site was about a 100 feet deep cut and 100 feet deep into the hill. Prior to the collapse a blast had just been made at one end of the cut creating a mass of dirt and ore to fall in the cut. Mr. Wheeler, a miner, saw a shaking of the earth and shouted a warning. The opposite side of the cut gave way and a massive slick head buried six men. Calls were made to Emerson and Cartersville for help. Thirty men arrived from the Kelley mine and sixty men from the Barton mine.  It was estimated that 1000 tons of weight shifted and covered the men.

A century later, upon the arrival of Komatsu Corporation a heavy equipment training course was in operation that was built upon former mining acreage on the east side of I-75 near the Pine Mountain Trail Head. During excavator training an opening was discovered in the old Morgan mine area that held the remains of a victim.

On June 25, 2007, Brockington and Associates and the Bartow Coroner’s Office investigated the find and found scattered human bones with some other related clothing materials. An analysis of the remains and site suggested three scenarios of how the victim may have come to be in the shaft. The first was it may have been the grave of an early Bartow pioneer, the second was that someone had unfortunately fallen in the abandoned mine vent and perished there or the likely case that the remains appear to be the missing body of the 1904 Morgan Mine tragedy that was never found. The remains are now with the Georgia Bureau of Investigation.

A side benefit of the Brockington investigation uncovered a network of 21 vent ducts and 19 prospect shafts (tunnels) in the area associated with the human remains investigation. These mines were determined to be iron ore operations conducted by the Mansfield Mining Company.

A notorious network of mining camps and chain gangs once operated in the Sugar Hill Village near Pine Log in northeast Bartow County.  The Courant American reported on October 20, 1889 that two Negroes were badly injured when a railroad trestle collapsed while riding ore cars.  The Iron Belt Railroad and Mining Company was working the Guyton Ore Bank when the ore train crossed the creek. The engine crossed safely, but the trestle gave way as the ore cars passed over the span. Several men escaped serious injury, but several were hurt from being pummeled by the spilling ore and tumbling ore cars.

The legendary Lime Works at Ladd’s Mountain also was known to have tunnel shafts and natural caves. This mining site manufactured nitroglycerine for blasting the side of the mountain. In June of 1889, 700 pounds of nitro blew up destroying the building and near by machinery. The force of the blast shattered windows for a radius of three miles. Fortunately no personnel were injured in the explosion.

Perhaps one of the most horrific Bartow mining tragedies was the Chumley or Chumler Hill manganese mine located northeast of Cartersville off the Canton Road. The March 28, 1899 Courant American reported in two different articles that the men met a horrible underground death when a tunnel suddenly filled with water shutting off escape. The men were trapped over 220 feet below the surface. Once the men were reached they were all determined to have drowned. The follow up article describes in detail of the heroic efforts to recover the three men. It took a week to reach the trapped workers. The article relates that the shafts were about 4 feet wide and 6 feet high and how difficult the work was to remove the mud, water, debris and the exhaustion of the rescue teams. Some months later a 20 – year old miner fell forty feet down a shaft at the same mining site. He suffered crushed ankles, severe bruises and cuts, but survived.

In 1884 the Cartersville American Newspaper reported a fatal accident at the Dobbins Mine east of Cartersville, when a cave – in occurred instantly killing a worker and a second worker sustained wounds that he was not expected to overcome.  A third worker was lost in the cave – in and was considered to be unrecoverable. The owner, Miles Dobbs was in the mine at the time and barely escaped. Recent heavy rains were blamed for the collapse of the banks.

According to an article in the July 24 1930, Tribune News a NRO workman was operating a steam shovel near the river when a cave-in occurred burying him. Quick work to recover him revealed he had suffered two broken legs and arm.

In August of 1947 an accident occurred at Flexitile/Funkhouser east of Pine Log when a huge block and tackle fell on Mr. Olin W. Boseman killing him instantly by bruising his upper torso and head. The device heavily damaged a near – by pump house and almost killing Mr. Fain Taylor.

Conclusion

Following the 1930’s, tunnel mining quickly faded and became lost to our heritage because it is less effective, unprofitable and not competitive. At least four generations have emerged since the end of the tunnel era. From the Greatest Generation and Baby Boomers to the Millennial Y’s and Z’s have little knowledge of the day when Bartow ore was pulled out of tunnels.

Tunnel mining of yester-year has given way to massive excavators capable of reaching great depths and moving enormous amounts of earth. As new technology is introduced and used to rescan former fields to locate undiscovered or deeper ore deposits, former tunnel networks are being uncovered and stand as a reminder of Bartow’s tunnel mining ancestors.

Approximate locations of tunnel mining featured in this article

Bibliography

Special Acknowledgment

A special recognition is extended to Mr. Stan Bearden as the primary consultant to this article for his professional expertise regarding his time and specialized knowledge to interpret this topic. Without his keen observation and alert to showcase this wrinkle in Bartow mining history, it may have perished without proper documentation.

Interviews and Field Visits

Mr. Stan Bearden, NRO Geologist and Vice President Operations, 6/25/ – 7/30/18

Mr. David Archer, Attorney, 6/26/10

Mr. Tom Deems, NRO President, 6/26/18

Mrs. Jodeen Brown, 7/11/18

Mr. Joel Guyton, Bartow County Coroner, 7/11/18

Mr. David Vaughan, 3/14/19

Mr. Joe Tilley, 3/38/19

Newspapers and State Archives

(Note, some article titles have been abbreviated)

Tribune News, July 24, 1930, Negro Workman Painfully Hurt

Courant American News, October 6th, 1904, Mining Catastrophe

Atlanta Constitution, October 4, 1904, Slick Head Causes Terrible Accident

Courant American News, September 13, 1900, Accident at Chumler Hill Mine

Courant American News, March 28, 1899, Shut Up In a Mine

Courant American News, March 30, 1899, Bodies Recovered

Courant American News, October 20, 1898, A Trestle Falls In

Courant American News, June 27, 1889, A Terrible Explosion

Cartersville American, February 19, 1884, Fatal Accident

Cartersville Tribune, August 21, 1947, County Singing Leader Killed

Archeologists/Geologists/Intern

Brockington and Associates, historical archeologist cultural resources consultants

3850 Holcomb Bridge Road, Suite 105 Peachtree Corners, Georgia 30092

Dr. Thomas Watson, 1906 Geological Survey of Georgia

Tracy Lusk, Bartow’s Mining Legacy, 2016, EVHS

Georgia Archives Digital Vault, Photo ID mmg24-2292a

Georgia Speleological Survey (GSS) Map of the National Speleological Society, 1972-1974

Cooking Schools, Canneries and Freezer Lockers

Ingredients for Cartersville’s Electric Age

By: Joe F. Head

As early as May 3, 1900 Cartersville entrepreneurs had launched their first Canning Factory to benefit its citizens. Additionally, an icehouse, freezer locker, two canning factories and local cooking schools were all made possible by electricity. As years followed the community saw the presence of Georgia Power offering a home economist division encouraging the use of modern kitchen appliances.

By 1906 the City of Cartersville had successfully installed city water, gas and electricity. Indoor plumbing had yet to be achieved, but modern conveniences were on the rise and were focusing on food preparation. The target market included wives and women of the community who might be persuaded to purchase services or kitchen appliances to replace traditional wood burning stoves and ice boxes.

Driving this phenomena was the rise of the Georgia Power Company and its ambition to sell greater quantities of electricity. Georgia Power evolved from the Georgia Railway and Electric Company. To achieve this goal Georgia Power strategically began to promote its electrical service to residential and commercial markets using a number of methods. One in particular was the introduction of community Cooking Schools that often partnered with local businesses wishing to exhibit and sell modern electrical appliances. By 1926, Georgia Power established contracts with Women’s Clubs, high schools and the State College of Agriculture in Athens. They expanded their home economist department to offer a core of “home service girls” or representatives who were trained to help with cooking instruction. The featured speakers were Mrs. Carol Crawford, director; Mrs. Ada Crawford economist and Mrs. Katherine Babb, economist. As a by-product the home economics division added cookbooks and a radio show as a service to further encourage the use of cooking with electric appliances.

The earliest record of cooking schools first appeared in the newspaper on October 8, 1928. The ladies of the American Legion Auxiliary held a weeklong school consisting of lectures, demonstrations and classes for the community ladies.

The curriculum was a five-day course taught by Mrs. Elizabeth Stanfield offering instruction for breads and desserts on Monday, meats and vegetables on Tuesday, cakes and fillings on Wednesday, salads and molded salads on Thursday, concluding with croquettes on Friday. Season tickets were $1.00 or .25 cents per day for a single class. Tickets were available for purchase at Gilreath-Champion Drugs and Scheuer Brothers dry goods store.

The school was held at the American Legion with Jackson Furniture Company providing a functional demo kitchen. Cooking schools continued to be a popular activity with the American Legion ladies for several years.

By 1932 local churches began to conduct cooking schools with the first possibly being the Circle Two Women’s Auxiliary of the Presbyterian Church. Mrs. Alva Moore conducted the class.

Soon following in 1936, Georgia Power appeared on the scene with their well-known food economist Mrs. Ethel P. Lewis of Atlanta. According to the newspaper she held classes for three afternoons at the Cartersville High School Gymnasium (former Rev. Sam Jones Female College site) on the corner of Cherokee and Lee Streets. Ladies of the community decorated with colorful streamers that ran across the top of the gym.

The building was filled with exhibit booths and local merchants showcased their appliances. The event was billed as the “Cartersville Food and Electric Show” and was sponsored by the Tribune News, the Parent Teacher Association (PTA) and leading food and electric leaders. Reviews praised Mrs. Lewis for her charm and culinary skills stating that hundreds came each day to see the exhibits and demonstrations. According to the newspaper a special closing event was arranged to allow two men the opportunity to prepare a meal. Some 600 spectators were not initially impressed until the food was served and every one was delighted with the tasty outcome. The two men were Mr. George Nelson of the GE-Edison Company and Mr. H. A. Smeeton of Georgia Power. The two put on a humorous cooking skit and their identities were later introduced to a surprised audience.

Cartersville High School Gym on Cherokee and Lee Streets, Circa 1946

Georgia Power debuted its Electric and Food Show in 1936 offering a panorama of electrical features. Local merchants exhibiting included: Warlick Jones Chevrolet, Knight Mercantile, Jackson Furniture, Coca Cola, Cummings and Long Furniture, Mayes & Green Grocery, Hamrick Grocery, Gilreath-Champion Drug Store, Cartersville Auto Supply, Nation-Wide and Cartersville Ice and Coal Co.

Mrs. Lelia Pittman Johnson recalls her mother, Mrs. Emily Daves Pittman enrolling in one of the cooking schools held at the old Cartersville Gymnasium.  Her family also had a compartment at the freezer locker. They lived a very frugal life style, put up canned goods and lived in a Sears kit house on north Erwin Street. She remembers that following the cooking class they did purchase a new stove from Jackson Furniture Company.

Georgia Power continued its state wide cooking school success returning to Cartersville with three more schools offered in April of 1940. The featured instructor was Miss Elizabeth Parker, home economist and regional celebrity of radio and magazine. Miss Fern Snider was also cited in subsequent announcements to teach sessions and had taught over 85 classes.  The three cooking schools were a joint effort between Mrs. James A. Stanford, Cartersville PTA president and Georgia Power.

In 1942 the Cartersville City Schools’ PTA offered another slate of Cooking schools on April 22, 23, 24, apparently without the support of Georgia Power.  Miss Kathleen Crow instructed and was a graduate of the famed Spry Kitchen of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Following the success of earlier culinary classes, The Euzelian Women’s Class of the Tabernacle Baptist Church began offering cooking schools in 1940. They, too, promoted Mrs. Stanfield as the culinary expert and promised to feature state-of-the-art appliances, recipes for well balanced nutrition and instructions on how to use modern ranges. The class was held at the former Douglas Street School auditorium. Proceeds were to be used for the Tabernacle building fund. Tickets to the class cost fifty cents  and that included a copy of Mrs. Stanfield’s cookbook publication. Twenty-five lucky participants received door prizes for attending.

As the success of cooking classes rose, the public schools begin to include home economics in the high school curriculum. It was almost imperative that high girls take cooking classes and young men take industrial arts.

Cartersville High School Home Economics Class, circa 1951

Canning Plants

An early newspaper mention of a canning plant opening appeared in May of 1900 in time for the fruit harvests later that summer. The plant was known as the Elberta Canning Company. It was lead by Mr. H. E. Cary, secretary and treasurer of the Cartersville Bank. The company touts a factory capacity of 3000 two-pound cans per day or 4000 three-pound cans per day.

Some 43 years later in 1946, a canning plant construction was announced at the municipal market. The canning plant committee consisted of City Manager Crane, Commissioner Arthur Neal and William Shadden. In July of 1943, the paper reported that M. W. H. (Alphabet) Collins, Farm Extension Agent announced that the Agricultural Extension Service would provide a trained lady to demonstrate proper canning procedures. The canning demonstrations were be sponsored by the Bartow County Cannery.

The City of Cartersville and Bartow County jointly owned the plant managed by Mr. E. W. Reeves. It employed five people to supervise customers who came to can food goods. It averaged 20 to 40 people per day and was open Monday through Friday from 8:00 to 5:00. The plant could produce an average of 1500 cans daily for six cents for a number 2 can or seven cents for a number 3 can. It was noted that some of the city’s most prominent citizens frequented the cannery.

For customer convenience, articles appeared in the newspapers when additional services, staff, equipment and telephones were added to the two canning plants.

As WWII emerged, canning plants in the 1940s were popular throughout the country. National promotions were featured in local papers of the wives of Washington, D.C. officials working to promote the Department of Agriculture Home Canning Week. Georgia Power returned to the scene with service plans to help customers conserve for war victory by assisting in the repair of appliances to curb the need for replacing products. The plan also was directed to optimize food production and conservation.

Freezer Locker

By 1945 Cartersville opened its first freezer locker located on south Tennessee Street. The Tribune News reported on January 25, 1945 that Mr. R. D. Hale owner and operator announced the plant was ready for business with a capacity of 500 lockers renting for 12 to 15 dollars each. The locker also offered processing and butcher services.  Upon opening they were expecting several thousand pounds of meat for curing and freezing.

Mrs. Betty Warlick Archer recollects the freezer lockers, cannery and old wooden icehouse. She recalls visiting with her mother the freezer locker located on south Tennessee Street diagonally across the street from today’s Tribune News. She vividly remembers having to put on a heavy coat provided by the freezer locker and walking into the large room-like cooler. There she saw small compartments where families would rent cooler space for storing meats, produce and fruits.

She also recalls seeing the city – county owned cannery located on Erwin Street that was north of the old Tinsley Park. As she remembers it was a long wooden, one floor building. Her mother canned there and packed her food stuffs in metal cans that were sealed on site.

Mrs. Ann Miller Wheeler grew up in Cartersville and remembers the freezer lockers located on Tennessee Street and the icehouse. Her father was a butcher and she recalls that people would have him prepare wild game and sides of beef to be stored in the lockers. She remembers the compartments were about the size of a large safety deposit box and everyone had a key to secure their meat.

Icehouse

Cartersville also had an icehouse facility located on Leake Street on the east side of the railroad crossing. Here the Southland Ice Company produced 12×12 inch blocks of ice. Locals would visit the icehouse on weekends and purchase a brown double bagged sack of chipped ice. The ice chipper was loud and water was constantly running out the door and through the platform planks. Mrs. Archer also remembers watermelons and Coca-Colas submerged in ice that could be purchase there. She also recalls Cartersville had a block ice delivery service and milk delivered to homes in glass bottles by Jackson’s Dairy.

A recipe for Success!

The emergence of the electrical age gave rise to modern home cooking conveniences with the introduction of refrigerators, stoves, toasters and ceiling lights. Additionally, Cartersville residents and commercial enterprises offered a fresh market for Georgia Power. Incentive to collaborate with appliance stores in order to host and exhibit demonstrations designed to motivate the sale of more home appliances or purchase commercial, electrical, services was a savvy Georgia Power strategy. As a result, cooking schools, canneries and freezer lockers were a natural recipe to generate interest and stir early community action.

Ironically, 21st century women watch Paula Deen, Pioneer Woman, Giada, Emeril Lagasse and other nationally known chefs in the comfort of their homes using 50-inch wide TV screens, Ipads and You Tube. All  of these devices are powered by electricity that has yet added another appliance to the menu. The power companies were surely onto something that remains a stove-top winner.

Bibliography

Newspapers/Articles

Note: Some article titles have been abbreviated

Tribune News, May 3, 1900, Will Build Canning Factory

Tribune News, March 13 1900, Plans Completed for Cooking School

Tribune News, October 8, 1928, Cooking School Program Begins

Tribune News, November 1, 1928, Cooking School Closed Great Success

Tribune News, February 13, 1930, Legion Auxiliary Sponsors Cooking School

Tribune News, February 18 and March 3, 1932, Cooking School Great Success

Tribune News, April 13, 1933, Three Day Cooking School Opens Here Next Tuesday

Tribune News, May 9, 1936, Ready for Cooking School

Tribune News, May 16, 1936, Electrical Supplies Displayed at Cooking School

Tribune News, April 23, 27 1936, Cooking School Brilliant Affair

Tribune News, April 14, 1938, Cooking School -Food Show Audience

Tribune News, March 16, 1939, Will Again Conduct Cooking School

Tribune News, April 20 and 27, 1939, Electric and Food Show Panorama

Tribune News, April 4, 1940, Conducts Tree Cooking Schools

Tribune News, February 29, 1940, Cooking School at Tabernacle

Tribune News, March 7, 1940, Cooking School to Aid Church Building Fund

Tribune News, March 21, 1940, Euzelian Class Cooking School to Open Tuesday

Tribune News, April 23, 1940, Day Session of PTA Cooking School

Tribune News, April 25, 1940, Cartersville House Keepers Enjoy Cooking School

Tribune News, April 2, 1942, Cooking School is Arranged For City’s Housewives

Tribune News, February 12, 1942, Cooking School to be held at Market Street Gym

Tribune News, June 24, 1943, Canning Plant Ready for Work

Tribune News, July 1, 1943, Demonstrations in Canning Methods

Tribune News, July 7, 1943, Canning Plant Is Ready for Service

Tribune News, September 14, 1944, Canning Plant Open 3 Days Week

Tribune News, June 28, 1945, Canning Plant Now Open each week

Tribune News, January 25, 1945, Freezer Locker Plant Gets Ready to Receive Meat

Tribune News, July 5, 1945, Stegall Operated Canning Plant

Tribune News, May 25, 1944, Immediate Erection of Modern Freezer Locker

Tribune News, July 25, 1946, Cartersville Canning Plant in Operation

Newsletters, Books

EVHS Newsletter, June 2018, Vol 102, Jo Anne Branton, What’s Cooking?

Cartersville High School Yearbooks, CAHISCO, 1949 – 52

History of the Georgia Power Company, 1855 1956, Wright, H. Wade

Georgia Historical Society Footnotes, Summer 1996

Home Service Department Changes Name, Robbie Ladd, Georgia Power,  11/1978

Sales Department Yearbook, 1928 Home Services Division, Georgia Power

Round the Home, Volume XII, February 1942, Georgia Power

Interviews

Mrs. Lelia Pittman Johnson, February 2019, Cartersville GA

Mrs. Betty Warlick Archer, March 15, 2019, Cartersville GA

Mrs. Ann Miller Wheeler, March 18, 2019, Cartersville GA