The Evolution of Schools in Bartow County, Georgia

The First 100 Years

sam-jones
Sam Jones Female College and first Cartersville High School until 1953

Elyse Hoganson, Intern

Etowah Valley Historical Society

Georgia College and State University

HIST 4960

Dr. Jessica Wallace

July 2016

Supervised by Joe F. Head, EVHS Vice President

 

The Evolution of Schools in Bartow County, Georgia

The First 100 Years

The origins of education in Bartow County, Georgia, previously known as Cass County, can be partially discerned only after deeply researching archives and newspapers dating from the middle of the nineteenth to the turn of the twentieth century when schools came into the charge of the state. The birth of education in this southern agricultural county cannot be pinpointed to one school, one year, or even one community in part because of the lack of government involvement in the creation of schools, and because of the loss of records destroyed in the Civil War. From this research, one hundred and twenty one schools were found to have existed in Cass/Bartow County between the 1830 and 1930’s, excluding Native American mission schools. As a result, this examination revealed three types of institutions that were once present. These three practices were in some sequential order, but for a time overlapped one another.

PHASE 1

The first type of school that evolved from exclusive parental instruction (home schooling)  was that of the one-room school houses called “old field schools”. Evidence of these schools can be found in local archives, specifically articles and advertisements from local newspapers. Old field schools were often affiliated with local churches and agriculture communities. Multiple schools were necessary in one county to accommodate the scattered population. These rural schools were unregulated by the state, but did receive some financial assistance from the local government in the form of meager teacher compensation, one of the earliest examples of public funding. Most individuals and communities in Bartow in the mid-1800’s were opposed to the notion of public schooling, and believed that the responsibility of educating ones children is that of the parents alone. A factor that highly influenced the hesitation for creating public schools was the focus and dependence on agriculture in the area, and most farming families relied on their children as a labor force to help in planting, harvesting, and tending to livestock. However, when enough community members were in favor of a public school, the smaller independent establishments often consolidated into a larger school.

PHASE 2

A second form of education in Bartow County that was more selective and difficult to track due to its short life, lack of records, and eagerness to receive compensation from the government were independent schools and academies run out of individuals’ homes, or “cottage academies.” A cottage school is one that typically was established by an educator and operated by that individual who charged tuition for attendance. In many cases these schools were considered upscale, gender specific education and may have provided optional room and board as needed.  Some offered specialized courses of study in languages, arts or science. Cottage schools were found to operate primarily between the mid 1860’s and mid 1880’s. A reason why these cottage academies might have been short lived can be connected to the school’s eagerness to receive funds from the government for a school house, furniture, books, and teacher compensation. When public funding became more generously allotted, most of the cottage academies dissolved, and many of the individuals who ran a school out of their home or in a community building can be eventually traced to the establishment of a larger community school and even later to a public school. One such example is the West End Institute ran by Miss Lucy Carpenter and Mrs. J. W. Harris. These two women began their career in education with the opening of Miss Carpenter’s School on January 5, 1885. Mrs. J. W. Harris was a graduate of the Cassville Female College, and the sister of Asa Candler, the founder of Coca-Cola. Lucy Carpenter was a well-liked teacher in the community. This school was conducted in a former Methodist church in Cartersville, Georgia. Miss Carpenter’s School later became known as the Church Street School as it was advertised in October 1885. In 1886, Mr. and Mrs. Harris chartered the West End Institute where Miss Carpenter and Mrs. Harris were principals. The West End Institute supplied board for the students and offered courses in music, art, and foreign language. This category of school offered direction in niche subjects to students whose guardians were willing to pay tuition. Cottage academies were perceived to offer a more elite

Cartersville American 10/27/1885
Cartersville American 10/27/1885

curriculum in comparison to those community schools operated in rural schoolhouses and church buildings. Once the creation of public schools began, most of these cottage academies dissolved; however, some students continued to attend private schools. This example of a cottage academy signifies the common evolution of schools in Bartow.

PHASE 3

The third form of education surfaced in the 1880s when the state government took interest in public education. This third phase of schools can be categorized as a transition between old field schools and cottage academies, leading up to the full-blown public schools that we know today. This third phase appears to be a hybrid of the previous types of schools and public schools because many institutions in the late 1800’s received some funding from the local government, but they were still mostly tuition-based and financially supported by members of the community. This transitional phase encompasses various types of schools that differed in the rigor of instruction as well as the physical structure. Some were run out of residences while others operated in buildings crafted specifically for the school. This third phase is difficult to pinpoint because a common goal among the various schools in this category was to obtain state funding, which would lead to their eventual evolution into public institutions. One example of a hybrid school was the East Cartersville Institute. When the West End Institute was in operation in Cartersville, the East Cartersville Institute existed on the other side of town on Gilmer and Carter Streets. In 1883, the East Cartersville Institute was supervised by the principal Prof. Matthew Marshall. The patrons of this school received the benefit of the Public School Fund, but still required tuition.

PUBLIC OPINION

While there were many who favored the establishment of a public school system, there was still a majority who believed that education was the responsibility of the parents and guardians. In an article from the September 18, 1873 edition of Standard and Express newspaper, public education is criticized, and the author even suggests that if it is the duty of the tax payers to take responsibility for the education of children then shouldn’t “taxpayers also employ public preachers to teach moral and religious culture to the children?” The views in this article expressed the concerns of many Georgians who did not support public education. Old field schools, cottage academies, and public schools did coexist, however, there is a distinct difference between these types, and the timeline of education in the county shows a major shift in interest from one type to the next. [1]

OLD FIELD SCHOOLS

The first schools in Bartow County cropped up in the years before the Civil War, or the War Between the States. Some of the families in the various communities around the county decided to form a community school for their children to attend, often being influenced by the local church. Being a farming community, these rural schools did not enforce attendance or have a uniform curriculum. During harvest and planting seasons children were needed at home to help with the work and attended school as farming chores allowed. Teachers with degrees or exceptional credentials were extremely hard to find. Most teachers of the old field schools were women of the community, wives, daughters, and sisters who were homeschooled or self-taught. Although the subjects varied in each school and depended on the knowledge of the teacher, there was an emphasis on reading, writing, and arithmetic. Other subjects included domestic sciences, language, and music. Those institutions that were created by or operated out of the local church also included lessons in religion and bible study. The presiding reverend of the local church often taught at these community schools, too. In this time, educators were also known to travel throughout the state and settled wherever they could convince parents in a community to hire them to teach. Many of these teachers were university graduates, or graduates of a normal school, unlike the local teachers who were comparatively under qualified. [2] For this reason, travelling professors were successful in establishing cottage academies and convincing parents to enroll their children.

One of the earliest schools in Bartow County was The Cassville Academy established in 1833. Little is known about this school other than a report in 1838 stating that the school had 60 students. The creation of this school resulted from an act of legislation. Raccoon Creek School and Macedonia School were two old field schools in Bartow County in the 1840’s. Raccoon Creek School was taught by Rev. Nathan Smith in Raccoon Creek Baptist Church located near Stilesboro, and the first Macedonia School of two was created by the community of the Macedonia Baptist Church in west Bartow. The Macedonia School closed during the Civil War, and was likely destroyed by Union soldiers in May 1864. The second Macedonia School was operating in 1913 in east Bartow

East Macedonia School
East Macedonia School

County, southeast of Center. Stamp Creek School in White, Georgia was open in the late nineteenth century. The Boston-Brooke School was built in 1848 by Frederick Auton Boston in the Stamp Creek community of Bartow County. The first teacher of this school was W. C. Brooke who aided in the construction of the log building. This community school also served as a meeting house and a polling place for local elections. Unlike most schoolhouses, the Boston-Brooke School survived the Civil War and even served as a holding place for captured Union soldiers. The schoolhouse remained standing until December 1999 when it burned. Adairsville Academy, often referred to as The Academy, was opened in the late 1870’s. The name was changed in 1910 to the Cherokee Institute, and in 1916 the school was sold to the city of Adairsville. It consolidated into the Bartow Rural High School in 1939. An old field school, or rural community school, called the Busy Bee School was founded in 1897 in Adairsville by Mrs. McCants and her daughter, Addie. According to an article from a local newspaper, the school operated out of a few different buildings, with one being located at the intersection of Main Street and Summer Street.

In Kingston, Georgia, there existed a school that serviced the youth in the community known as the Kingston Academy. Opened in 1857, this school survived the Civil War and continued to operate in 1876. Kingston Academy was taught by J. T. Lin in 1876, and was described in a newspaper advertisement from the Cartersville Express to have, “No liquor shops, gaming tables or sickness. Good water – good churches – refined society.” This school also offered board for the students. Another school was taught by Mrs. C. N. Mayson in Kingston after the war. Her school strived to assist those who were found handicapped as a result of the war. Kingston High School was established in the early 1900’s. The frame school building burned down after 1911 and was rebuilt out of brick.

Five Forks School
Five Forks School

Miss Gena Moon opened the Leeks School on July 24, 1905 in Cartersville, and in the neighboring community of Five Forks, a school was operating under Mr. W. F. Freeman as principal.

COTTAGE ACADEMIES

Rev. Charles Wallace Howard established a girl’s school north of Kingston called Spring Bank in 1853. Martha Berry was a student of Spring Bank and went on to found Berry College in Rome, Georgia. A boy’s school founded in Kingston by the name of Goulding House, was ran by Rev. F. R. Goulding, a bestselling author and the inventor of the first sewing machine. Both schools closed during the war, but Spring Bank reopened and operated years after Rev. Howard’s death in 1876. Spring Bank and Goulding House are notable schools for the area because they were taught by prominent men of the community and could be considered cottage academies.spring-banks

In 1868, an ad appeared in local newspapers for the Female High School in Cartersville under the supervision of the principals, Rev. O. L. Smith, D. D. and Rev. F. P. Brown, A. M. In the same year the Cartersville Male Academy lists Rev. Smith and Col. Pritchett as the overseers. Four years later, advertisements for two more schools

Goulding House

were displayed together titled, Cartersville Male High School under the charge of R. Johnston, principal and Cartersville Female Seminary taught by Misses Moon and Safford. The life stories of Misses Lottie Moon and Abby Safford are well-known in the Bartow County community. Lottie Moon was a popular school teacher in the southeast U.S. during her lifetime, but she is even better known for her missionary work in China. In an advertisement from 1873, the Cartersville Female Seminary listed Mrs. S. F. Brame and Miss Julia Sims as principals. Mrs. Brame previously operated her own female institute and would later teach at the West End Institute with her niece, Mrs. Harris.goulding-house

Mrs. Brame’s Female School is a perfect example of a cottage academy that operated in 1872 in Cartersville. Like most private academies, Mrs. Brame offered lessons in the traditional academics, as well as, lessons in music and language. The Kindergarten system of teaching was started in Mrs. Brame’s school in 1885 by Mademoiselle V. Goulong. Students were welcome to board with the best families in town in convenient distance to the Academy. Mrs. Brame was connected to a prominent family in Bartow County’s history, and her efforts in the education of the county’s youth, aided in enrichening the county’s culture. Sarah Frances Brame was born Sarah Frances Beall, sister to Martha Bernetta Beall Candler who was the mother of Florence Candler Harris and Asa Candler, founder of Coca-Cola.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Standard and Express 8/15/1872
Standard and Express 8/15/1872
The Cartersville Express 1/4/1868
The Cartersville Express 1/4/1868
 Cartersville American8/5/1884
Cartersville American8/5/1884

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adairsville had its own institutions, one of them being the Bartow Classical and Scientific Institute. This school for boys operated in the mid-1880’s under the principal, Henry D. Capers. Board was offered for the students with the principal, and like all other private academies, tuition was charged by the term. Another private institute in Adairsville was the Annianna Classical School. Annianna was in operation in 1868 under the supervision of John H. Fitten. Classes were held in the Charles Hamilton home in north Adairsville. The number of students was limited to 12 day students and 12 boarders who stayed with Fitten and his family. In 1852, J. S. Lassiter taught a Mathematical School in Cassville that he characterized as, “Teaching done entirely by analysis.” This school offered mathematical lessons taught during a traditional term or private tutoring sessions. A common tactic for schools in the late nineteenth century was to list prominent men in the town as references in advertisements to bolster the credibility of the school. Lassiter listed Rev. G. W. Tumlin, Hon. Lewis A. Tumlin and James T. Livingston, Esq. In the same year, there was a school operating four miles from Cassville under the name of Two Run Academy. This school was taught by William P. Fain. While little is known about Two Run Academy, an article in The Standard on June 24, 1852 that lists the courses offered at the school; spelling, reading, composition, arithmetic, grammar, natural history, and Latin, suggests that this school was a cottage academy rather than a rural community school.

Most of the cottage academies cropped up in the 1880’s, and a few influential ones were detailed in an article from the Cartersville American on October 21, 1884. Both Mrs. Brame’s School and Miss Carpenter’s School were listed as well as Mrs. Baker’s School, Mrs. Bell’s School, Mr. Maddox’ School, and Moon and Mountcastle’s School. Mrs. J. A. Baker taught a school out of her home on West Main Street in Cartersville which was able to accommodate 25 students. She was praised in the article for her happy faculty and way with children. Baker was an 1876 graduate of Wesleyan Female College. Mrs. Bell’s School was located on Gilmer Street in Cartersville, and it serviced the children of the neighborhood. George W. Maddox was well known in Cartersville for teaching before and after the war, and he established his school in the southeastern part of the city. The last school mentioned in the article was said to have recently been established by Mr. John L. Moon and Mr. H. M. Mountcastle. This school operated on Douglas Street in Cartersville, and during this time, there was discussion over opening a night school for men who worked during the day. The Hillyer’s Male School was a cottage academy in Cartersville operating in 1872. Asa Candler, the founder of Coca-Cola, attended Hillyer’s School under the supervision of S. G. Hillyer, Jr during Asa’s three years spent in the county. Between 1870 and 1873, Asa Candler trained as a pharmacist in addition to attending school in Cartersville.

HYBRID SCHOOLS

Stilesboro Academy 2016
Stilesboro Academy 2016

Stilesboro Academy opened in 1859 and was spared by General Sherman in the Civil War because the school’s motto featured above the door, “Deo ac Patriae,” or “God and country,” was the same as that of West Point Military Academy. A petition for charter was granted for Stilesboro Academy on January 27, 1892. The Stilesboro Male and Female Institute, was open in 1868 under the care of the principal, J. G. Ryals, and his assistant, W. J. McCormick. Mrs. Ryals also taught music at this school. Stilesboro High School opened in the 1880’s, and the Stilesboro and Davis school districts consolidated into one school in 1938, operating out of the old Stilesboro Academy.

In Cassville, Gen. Wofford donated land to the community for the purpose of building an academy, a church, and a Sabbath school. The academy that resulted was Wofford Academy. The school was granted a charter in 1890, but the school was operating in 1877. Boarding for the students could be found with the families of Cass Station or with the principal. In 1880, the

Euharlee School
Euharlee School

principal was Prof. Matthew Marshall. The Sabbath school that was built was known as the Cassville M. E. Sabbath School, and in 1886 it ran under the superintendent, Dr. M. S. Browne. Wofford Academy burned down sometime between 1900 and 1905, and was replaced by the Cass Model School built in 1908. Cass Model School was under the management of the Bartow County Board of Education. The Euharlee School opened in Euharlee, Georgia on February 1, 1870 in a new building built specifically for the purpose of this school. The students were under the charge of J. H. Harris, graduate of Columbia College, South Carolina. Room and board was offered to students from $10-$12 per month. Eight miles west of the Cartersville Depot was the Mount Paran Academy built by the Mt. Paran Baptist Church. Mt. Paran was advertised in The Standard on March 4, 1852 listing Mr. and Mrs. R. F. Neely as its newest teachers. One account of these Euharlee schools pose the question of whether Mt. Paran Academy and Euharlee School were two names for the same institution, but records do not indicate a definitive answer. The Euharlee Institute opened on October 15, 1896, and a petition for charter was granted to the Euharlee Presbyterian Institute that same year. In 1913-1914, Euharlee Institute became the Bartow Rural High School under the Bartow County Board of Education. The school was open to both boys and girls, and board was offered for the students. The Pine Log Male & Female School near Pine Log, Georgia was in operation in 1868 under the principal, T. M. Fulton. Students of this school could receive board for $10-$12 a month. Nathaniel E. Harris, governor of Georgia and founder of the Georgia Institute of Technology, attended a school in Pine Log in the 1860’s called Martin Academy. A third school that formed in Kingston was the Whittenberg School opened in 1900 by Prof. and Mrs. W. V. Whittenberg. This school received the benefits of the public school fund. In 1875, the Erwin Street School was run by the principal, L. B. Millican and Mrs. M. G. Millican assisted him. First through Third Grade was taught at the Erwin Street School, and patrons of this school received the benefit of the public school fund. A school on Gilmer St. in Cartersville was the Due West School, operating in 1873. J. W. Pritchett was the principal of this school, and two teachers were Miss Sallie Trotter and Mrs. M. P. Godfrey. Due West School was unusual amongst the schools of its time because it was co-ed. New Hope Academy was operating near Cartersville in 1876 where Irby G. Hudson was principal. The Bates School was operating in 1915 in South Bartow and was moved to Emerson, Georgia in 1930.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS

In September 1889, two public schools for white children were opened in Cartersville on opposite ends of the town. The East Side School used the old East Cartersville Institute building, and the West Side School operated out of the old Sam Jones Female College building. Cartersville High School would later use that same building until 1953 when the new Cartersville High School was constructed. On Gilmer Street there existed a boarding house for students and laborers called Gilmer Hall. It is possible that the students who lived in this building attended one of the

Cherokee Avenue School
Cherokee Avenue School

various schools located near Gilmer Street. The Douglas Street School was in operation in the early twentieth century, and it was later called Cartersville Primary School. The Douglas Street School was operating in Cartersville in 1934, as was the Market Street School, also known as the Cherokee Avenue School. Both of these schools taught First through Seventh Grades.

BLACK SCHOOLS

Noble Hill 2016
Noble Hill 2016

Before and during the Civil War it was illegal in the southern states to educate blacks, so one will not likely find records of black schools before the 1880’s. The first black school in Cassville was located near New Hope Baptist Church. In the same area was the Cassville Colored School which was open from the 1880’s until 1921. In 1923, a new school was built to replace Cassville Colored School, with help from the Rosenwald school fund, called Noble Hill. Dr. Rosenwald and Booker T. Washington funded the creation of 5,000 black schools across the southeast U.S. Rosenwald was the part-owner of the Sears, Roebuck and Company and a philanthropist. Noble Hill is one of 53 Rosenwald schools still standing. Noble Hill School operated until 1955 when it consolidated with the Bartow Elementary School.  Another black school was located west of Kingston located on the Gordon-Wooley property off of Tom Jones Road called the Gordon School which operated in the 1920’s. Some other black schools in Bartow County were The Mission School, Brown’s Chapel, Conasene, Corinth, and Shiloh Baptist. A Brown’s Chapel schoolhouse existed prior to 1916, but that year representatives of the school asked the Bartow County Board of Education to provide arrangements for a new school in exchange for the deed to the land. In 1917, the black community of Rogers Station in Bartow County appeared before the County Board of Education with the intention of building Connesena Colored School. The community had raised $200 for the building of the school, and they requested a $100 contribution from the Board to meet the requirements of the Rosenwald fund. The Corinth Baptist Church operated a school for the black community in the 1930’s. This school closed in 1938 due to a school consolidation. Shiloh Baptist Church operated a school in the 1940’s near Stilesboro. The Mission School was established by The Mission African Methodist Church around 1928.

COLLEGES

A few colleges existed in Bartow County in the middle to late nineteenth century, but like the academies and old field schools, there was no standard curriculum or credentials that further classify these schools as colleges besides the name and the understanding that they offered a higher level of learning than the academies and high schools. Despite this, the colleges of Bartow County were the pride and joy of the county, and they were known around the country, evidenced by articles and advertisements from various newspapers in Georgia, like New London Daily Chronical in 1856 and the Charleston Courier in 1854. In the early 1850’s the members of Cassville made plans for the creation of two institutions of higher learning, one for boys and one for girls. The intention of these schools was to become state-renowned and the first of their kind in north Georgia. There were already two comparable schools in the county, a girls’ institute run by Mrs. S. S. Bradley and a boys’ institute run by Mr. and Mrs. R. F. Neely. Mr. Neely was a graduate of Trinity College in Dublin, Georgia, and his wife was a graduate of the Staunton Female Seminary in Virginia. The new boys’ school in Cassville came under the care of the local Baptist community and was dubbed the Cherokee Baptist College, while the girls’ school was associated with the local Methodist church and was called the Cassville Female College. The Cassville Female College began its first term in 1853 with Rev. Rogers, president, Rev. A. G. Johnson, professor of English and Latin Literature, S. G. Smith, professor of vocal and instrumental music, Mrs. E. Louisa Smith, principal preparatory department, and Mrs. E. L. Smith, principal ornamental department. The Female College offered board with the family of the President. The school was located on the west side of town on land donated by Judge Nathan Land. The two colleges in Cassville began construction around the same time and were due to open within months of each other, but the Cherokee Baptist College burned down prior to its completion, most likely from a neglected workman’s pipe, described by Joseph B. Mahan, Jr. in A History of Old Cassville 1833 – 1864. The male college was rebuilt and operated until the Civil War. Gen. Sherman’s troops destroyed the city of Cassville, along with its two colleges that had been used as hospitals during the war. In 1886, Rev. Sam P. Jones of the Cartersville Methodist church in Cartersville announced in one of his sermons the need for a college in the town, and soon the building of the Sam Jones Female College was underway. In 1904, a college was established in Pine Log. The college was not controlled by any religious denomination, stated in an article from The News and Courant on June 2, 1904. The building for Pine Log College was intended to be “two stories high with a wing branching off from each side.”

MODERN PHASE

The third phase of schools introduced public funding to the existing institutions, and brought on the next phase of education that still exists today: public funded schools based on taxes that enforced compulsory education. Between 1783 and 1817 all money for education from the state and local governments went to the academies, leaving none for rural community schools, but in 1822 the Poor School fund was created to support free schools throughout the state. In 1823, school districts were established within each county, and the county was given permission to levy taxes for the operation of the schools. The Poor School Fund existed as a precursor to the rise of public funding from the government, however, the legislation was disrupted by the Civil War, and was implemented again in 1866 mandating a free public school system. Some schools that can be classified into the modern phase still exist in some form today. Cartersville High School moved into the building it still uses today in

Cartersville High School 1953
Cartersville High School 1953

1953, and in 1935 the small rural schools of Cross Roads, Davis Town, Big Pond, and Ligon consolidated with the Taylorsville School. Many of the county rural schools like Euharlee and Adairsville consolidated into the Bartow Rural High School which opened in 1913-14.

This has been a landscape study dedicated to the discovery of how Bartow County schools evolved from its establishment in 1832. The research uncovered a variety of systems and phases that once delivered education to scattered populations and revealed local solutions over the first 100 years. It is hoped that this research has added to the existing knowledge of how schools evolved in Bartow County, as well as, exposed the priorities of the population and innovations that emerged during the evolution of schools in the area. It is also hoped that the explanations and discovery provided for the type of schools named here as cottage academies informs the public of how education was valued in the community and contributed to the culture of Bartow County today.

AUTHOR’S NOTE

The research that I have conducted over the past month has made me feel more connected to my hometown of Cartersville than ever before, and has enlightened me on the evolution of a vital component of the county’s culture.

 

APPENDIX A

All Schools in Bartow County 1840-1940

Key:

  1. Old Field Schools: support originated from pooled community and rural resources to build and fund instruction.
  2. Cottage Academies: typically offered upscale curriculum, required tuition, and offered optional room and board.
  3. Hybrid: schools in the transitional phase before modern schools.
  4. Public: state funded, compulsory education.

 

SCHOOL YEAR LOCATION TYPE
Adairsville Academy Late 1870’s Adairsville Old Field School
Adams Chapel 1900 Euharlee Hybrid
Allatoona 1910 Allatoona Hybrid
Allatoona 1935 Allatoona Public
Annianna Classical Institute 1868 Adairsville Cottage Academy
Atco School 1904 Cartersville Hybrid
Barnsley School 1888 Barnsley Estate Old Field School
Bartow Classical and Scientific Institute 1881 Adairsville Cottage Academy
Bartow Rural High School 1913 Euharlee Public
Bates School 1915, moved 1930 South Bartow, Emerson Old Field School
Bethany School 1900 Red Top Mt. Old Field School
Big Pond School 1888-1937 Taylorsville Old Field School
Boston-Brooke School 1848 Stamp Creek Old Field School
Brown’s Chapel 1916 N/A Black School
Busy Bee School 1897 Adairsville Old Field School
Cartersville Academy (coed) 1869 Cartersville Old Field School
Cartersville Female High School 1868 Cartersville Hybrid
Cartersville Female Seminary 1873 Cartersville Cottage Academy
Cartersville Male Academy 1868 Cartersville Hybrid
Cartersville Male High School 1872 Cartersville Public
Cassville Academy 1833 Cassville Cottage Academy
Cass Consolidated High School 1931 Cassville Public
Cass Model School 1908 Cass Station Public
Cassville Female College 1854 Cassville College
Cassville M. E. Sabbath School 1873 Cassville Old Field School
Cassville Mathematical School 1852 Cassville Cottage Academy
Cement School Unknown-1911 NF NF
Center School 1910 Cartersville Old Field School
Cherokee Avenue School 1930 Cartersville Public
Cherokee Baptist College 1857 Cassville College
Cherokee Baptist High School 1901 Cassville Hybrid
Cherokee Institute 1910 Adairsville Hybrid
Church Street School 1885 Cartersville Cottage Academy
Conasene 1917 N/A Black School
Corinth 1930’s Cartersville Black School
Corbin School NF NF Old Field School
Crossroads School Late 1800’s Taylorsville Old Field School
Cunningham School 1915 North Bartow NF
Davis School 1886 Adairsville Old Field School
Dewey School Unknown-1923 White NF
Douglas Street School 1907 Cartersville Public
Due West School 1873 Cartersville Hybrid
East Cartersville Institute 1883 Cartersville Hybrid
East Side School 1889 Cartersville Public
Erwin Street School 1876 Cartersville Hybrid
Etowah School 1840’s NF NF
Euharlee Elementary School NF Euharlee NF
Euharlee Institute 1896 Euharlee Old Field School
Euharlee Male and Female School 1867 Euharlee Old Field School
Fairview School Late 1800’s Kingston NF
Five Forks School 1905 Cassville Hybrid
Flexatile School 1906 Northeast Bartow Old Field School
Folsom School 1920 Folsom Old Field School
Ford School 1840 Stilesboro Cottage Academy
Gilmer Street School 1875 Cartersville Public
Gore Springs NF NF NF
Gordon School 1920’s North of Kingston Black School
Goulding House 1854 Kingston Cottage Academy
Henderson School 1884 Taylorsville Old Field School
Hendricks School 1840 White Old Field School
Hillyer’s Male School 1870 Cartersville Cottage Academy
Kingston Academy 1857 Kingston Hybrid
Kingston Elementary School NF Kingston NF
Leek School 1905 Cartersville Old Field School
Liberty Hill School 1889 Cartersville Old Field School
Ligon School 1890 NF Old Field School
Linwood School NF Kingston Old Field School
Macedonia School 1845 West Bartow Old Field School
Macedonia School 1912 Stamp Creek Old Field School
Market Street School 1934 Cartersville Public
Martin Academy 1860’s Pine Log? NF
Mission School 1928 N/A Black School
Moon and Mountcastle School 1884 Cartersville Cottage Academy
Mt. Paran Academy 1852 Cassville Cottage Academy
Mt. Pleasant School 1908 NF Old Field School
Mr. Maddox’ School 1884 Cartersville Cottage Academy
Mrs. Baker’s School 1884 Cartersville Cottage Academy
Mrs. Bell’s School 1884 Cartersville Cottage Academy
Mrs. Bradley’s Female Institute 1852 Cassville Cottage Academy
Mrs. Brame’s Female School 1871 Cartersville Cottage Academy
Mt. Pisgah School 1920’s Cartersville Old Field School
New Hope Academy 1876 Cartersville Hybrid
Noble Hill 1923 Cassville Black School
Oak Grove School 1890’s West Bartow Old Field School
Oak Hill 1892 Northeast Bartow Old Field School
Oak Hill 1870’s-80’s West Bartow Old Field School
Oakland Institute 1847-1849 Rowland Springs Cottage Academy
Patterson Grove 1905 NF Old Field School
Peeples Valley NF NF NF
Pettit School 1898 Cassville Hybrid
Pine Forrest School (Pine Grove Rd) 1915 Cartersville Old Field School
Pine Log College 1903 Pine Log College
Pine Log Male and Female School 1868 Pine Log Hybrid
Pine Log Masonic Institute Early 1870’s Pine Log Hybrid
Pleasant Valley 1865 Adairsville Old Field School
Powelton Classical Institute 1845 Powelton Cottage Academy
Pritchettville Academy 1873 NF NF
Puryear School 1935 Southeast Bartow Public
Raccoon Creek School Early 1840’s Stilesboro Old Field School
Ransom School 1875 West of Kingston Cottage Academy
Rebecca School 1900’s-1930 Cassville Hybrid
Reynolds School 1922 Near Kingston Old Field School
Rowland Springs Select School 1858 Rowland Springs Cottage Academy
Salacoa School 1915 Northeast Bartow NF
Slate School 1906 NF Hybrid
Smithville School 1940’s Cartersville Hybrid
Snow Springs School 1905 Northwest Bartow Hybrid
Spring Bank 1853 Kingston Cottage Academy
Stamp Creek School Late 1800’s East Bartow Old Field School
Stilesboro Academy 1859 Stilesboro Old Field School
Stilesboro High School 1880’s Stilesboro Hybrid
Stilesboro Male and Female Institute 1859 Stilesboro Hybrid
Stoner School Unknown-1930 NF NF
Summer Hill 1930’s Cartersville Black School
Taylorsville 1900 Taylorsville Hybrid
The Finishing School Before 1861 Kingston Cottage Academy
Two Run Academy 1852 Cassville Cottage Academy
Union Hill 1917 Kingston Old Field School
West End Institute 1884 Cartersville Cottage Academy
West Side School 1889 Cartersville Public
White 1890’s-1973 White Hybrid
Wofford Academy 1873 Cassville Hybrid

 

APPENDIX B

Cottage Academies

SCHOOL YEAR LOCATION
Ford School 1840 Stilesboro
Powelton Classical Institute 1845 Powelton
Oakland Institute 1847-1849 Rowland Springs
Spring Bank 1853 Kingston
Cassville Academy (Incorporated) 1833 Cassville
Cassville Mathematical School 1852 Cassville
Mt. Paran Academy 1852 Cassville
Mrs. Bradley’s Female Institute 1852 Cassville
Two Run Academy 1852 Cassville
Goulding House 1854 Kingston
Rowland Springs School 1858 Rowland Springs
The Finishing School Before 1861 Kingston
Annianna Classical School 1868 Adairsville
Hillyer’s Male School 1870 Cartersville
Mrs. Brame’s Female School 1871 Cartersville
Cartersville Female Seminary 1873 Cartersville
Ransom School 1875 West of Kingston
Adairsville Academy Late 1870’s Adairsville
Bartow Classical & Scientific Institute 1881 Adairsville
Moon & Mountcastle’s School 1884 Cartersville
Mr. Maddox’ School 1884 Cartersville
Mrs. Baker’s School 1884 Cartersville
Mrs. Bell’s School 1884 Cartersville
Church Street School 1885 Cartersville
West End Institute 1884 Cartersville

APPENDIX C

Colleges

Cassville Female College 1853 Cassville
Cherokee Baptist College 1853 Cassville
Pine Log College 1904 Pine Log
Sam Jones Female College 1886 Cartersville

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Etowah Valley Historical Society Archives and Library

Bartow History Museum Archives

Euharlee History Museum Archives and Library

Noble Hill Memorial Center

Kingston Women’s History Museum

Cartersville City School Superintendent Office

Bartow County Superintendent Office

The Stilesboro Improvement Club

Summer Hill

Mr. Wesley Lamar Harris

Mr. Guy Parmenter

Mr. Sam Graham

Ms. Suzanne Brock

*Special Thanks to Intern Supervisor Mr. Joe F. Head for his welcoming and encouraging attitude, his devotion to this particular project and my needs, as well as his devotion to Bartow County and its history.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Heritage of Euharlee, Stilesboro, and Taylorsville, Georgia, Euharlee Historical Committee, 2010, (Stars Printing Co., Acworth, GA).

Bartow Rural High School 1915-1916, Bartow Tribune Print, (Cartersville, GA).

Wesley Lamar Harris, Taylorsville High School 1900-1966, 2nd Edition, (Cartersville, Ga: McStatts Printing, 2012).

Lucy J. Cunyus, History of Bartow County, Georgia, Formerly Cass County, (Tribune Publishing Co., Inc. 1933).

Cartersville Public Schools Centennial 1888-1988, (McStatt’s Printing Co., Inc.).

The History of Euharlee, The Euharlee History Committee. (Cullman, Al: Gregath Publishing Co., 1994).

Thomas A. Scott, Interview with Dr. Susie Wheeler No. 3, 2000.

Oscar H. Joiner, A History of Public Education in Georgia 1734 – 1976, (Columbia, SC: The R. L. Bryan Company, 1976).

Joseph B. Mahan, Jr., A History of Old Cassville 1833 – 1864, (Acworth, Ga: Star Printing Co., 1994).

Grant, Chris, “Education Reform,” New Georgia Encyclopedia, (2014), accessed August 5, 2016, http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/education/education-reform

[1] In 1916, compulsory education for children between the ages 8 and 14 was enacted by the state legislation in Georgia’s first statewide education initiative. Public funding was introduced in Bartow County prior to this legislation, so it was financially feasible for most children to attend school by this point. Chris Grant, “Education Reform.”

[2] Normal Schools were used throughout the United States in the nineteenth century to educate teachers and establish teaching standards in the hopes of standardizing schools in the country. While Normal Schools existed across the country, not all teachers attended these schools or teaching colleges, especially teachers from smaller rural towns. Encyclopedia Britannica, “Normal School Teacher Education,” 2009.

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